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MSL599 Project in Leadership - Course Rated

July 13, 2020by admin

MSL599 Project in Leadership
Spring Semester AY2017-2018
Project Report (PR)

Course Code and Title MSL599 Project in Leadership

Group Project Submission Soft copy on Blackboard AND hard copy should be submitted to my office by Saturday, June 8h, 11:59PM
Assignment Type PR is worth 10% of the total grading

Marking Scheme:
Sections Points Score CLO
Structure of the Report 3 2
Discussion of Findings 3 2
Conclusions, Limitations & Future Research 2 4
References & Appendices 2 4

Total Percentage or Points: or

Abstract
Due to rapid change in world business, there has been a change in approaches to leadership. When leadership approaches are viewed in past they are associated more with power, competence and leaders were like a ruler. Where as in modern organization the approaches to leadership consist of different qualities such as charisma, creative, leading the subordinates, and taking successful decision during time of difficulty. Leaders are more like as a guide or helper. To improve performance of organizations it is necessary that leaders should have these qualities. Thus the present is conducted to explore the role of leadership in organizational change and it impact on various organizational factors within context of UAE. The impact of leadership qualities was explored on various variables such as financial performance, competitive performance, personnel turnover and sustainability. Data was collected from the employees working in organization by distributing self-reported questionnaire. The sample size was 158 employees working at different positions in IT sector. The results have shown there is a positive relationship of leadership qualities with financial performance, competitive performance, personnel turnover and sustainability. Further to find the impact of independent variable on dependent variables, linear regression analysis was performed and it was find out that leadership qualities significantly predicts financial performance, competitive performance, personnel turnover and sustainability. The findings are helpful in understanding that effective leadership is associated positively with organization success in process of change. Leadership qualities play an effective role in motivating employees in change process, thus resulting in improving competitiveness of organization. Recommendations for future research are given with the future emphasis on different organization and mix method of data collection. In future data should be collected from the leaders as well.

Contents
Abstract 2
Introduction 4
Project Problem 5
Review of Related Literature 6
Value-based model of leadership 8
Conceptual Framework 10
Research Methodology 11
Research design 11
Research nature 11
Sample design 11
Method of Data collection 11
Research question 12
Hypothesis 12
Instruments 12
Data Analysis 13
Statistics to be used 13
Results 15
Descriptive analysis 15
Correlation Analysis 18
Regression 19
Summary of results 25
Discussion 27
Conclusion 29
Recommendations 30
References 31
Appendix 37

Introduction
Shaikh Zayed Bin Sultan was our nation greatest leader; he believed that leaders are drivers to either success or failure of organizations. Modern organizations require diverse skills, which may be acquired through scholarly inquiry or experience. Formal training is an important ingredient to good leadership although some leaders are effective without necessarily having gone through any form of training (Voegtlin, 2016). Therefore, leadership is grounded on the skills possessed by a leader, and not on the level of learning (Mattar, 2016). Currently, a number of organizations in the modern society face leadership crisis, which has resulted in massive losses, retrenchment of workers, poor service delivery, and a decline in the economic growth of a country as this crisis is severe to the point of closure of some of organizations (de Zilwa, 2016).
In modern time changes are occurring in the organization rapidly and it is becoming essential. This is due to increased competition in global market, to achieve this competitiveness leadership plays an essential role (Iqbal et al, 2012). The effective leadership is associated positively with creating sustainability within organization. it is understood that leadership plays an important role in affecting its employees and to achieve desired results according to organizational goals (Jong & Hartog, 2007). Leaders must have knowledge about authority, behavior and actions. Efforts must be made to realize need of organizational change, qualities and capabilities about the group he his leading. It will assist the leader in pushing forward so that sustainability can be achieved and change process. Effective leadership approach requires the long term support and leaders develop strategies to achieve effectiveness of change process (Bolden, 2010). Transformational leadership is considered as an ideal leadership style with the aim to change and transform subordinates. Leaders change interpersonal behavior and wants improvement in employee’s behavior (Hall et al, 2008).
According to By (2005) change is the feature that is present in organization both in strategic and operational level. Organizational change has become a challenge for each party that is involved in process of change. The success of change is managed well when leaders have proper plan for executing research. Leaders act as a primary change agent who lead the subordinates from front and develop a culture which assist in change process.
During change process it is necessary to adopt effective leadership style, beside making organizational arrangements (Tunçer, 2011). Qualities of transformational leadership style are needed to be developed during course of change process within organization, as it is related with making changing and transforming organization.

Project Problem
The current study intends to evaluate the concept of leadership as a critical aspect of management and a core ingredient for success. In fact, it acknowledges the unique value of transformational leadership qualities and explores its practical value. This is based on the awareness that transformational leadership entails positively influencing subordinates to work towards a common goal in an organization (Northouse, 2016). The project anticipates that applying this form of leadership when compared to other forms will effectively influence subordinates at all levels while strongly understanding needs, values and strengths to guarantee organization success. In this respect, this study will explore the role of a leader in creating a sustainable and potentially successful organization through various leadership qualities such as charisma, vision, culture consideration, transformational and transactional leadership style.

Review of Related Literature
Transformational leadership is the process in which existing state of an organization is changed to a more positive and desired state. It is an important factor in bringing success to an organization. The type of leadership in transformative change embraces a collaborative, holistic, and multidisciplinary approach in demonstrating a positive change. According to McCleskey (2014), transformational leadership is grounded upon the way leaders communicate their philosophies, how they conduct their daily duties and how they live their lives. Therefore, transformational leadership enhances motivation and performance of the followers. On the other hand, Reid and Karambayya (2016) believe transformational leadership involves connecting the followers to the goals of an organization by building their strengths in order to optimize their performance. Transformational leaders have the following common characteristics; they tie their vision of the organization and its achievement, develop actions that translate to the vision of the organization, express confidence and optimism in the vision of the organization, and realize the vision of the organization through planned actions (Landis, Hill & Harvey, 2014). Therefore, the greatest pillar of transformational change is effective leadership.
According to Sethuraman and Suresh (2014), effective leadership refers to a strong character in organizing workforce and resources to attain the desired goals. Great leaders throughout history have a common feature of inspiring the society. Their efforts bring change that leads to transformation of the organizations and people. On the other hand, Ruben and Gigliotti (2016) believe for a person to be considered a great leader, he/she must have brought successful transformation to an organization facing a serious leadership crisis. Several theories have been put across to explain the concept of leadership. According to Reid & Karambayya (2016), leaders are born as explained in great man theory. Great man theory is based on cultural facts where leadership is inherited and passed from one generation to another (Sethuraman & Suresh, 2014). In this theory personal characteristics are less important because it is believed leaders have inmate qualities. These qualities are developed through training, observation and experience (Laschinger et al., 2014). Mattar (2016) described the following common characteristics of effective leaders; they build confidence and trust in their followers, they are committed to their call and keep promises, they believe in the inherent value and self-worth of their followers, they are considerate when pushing their leaders, and they create a conducive working environment.
Generally, effective leadership qualities are required in all spheres of life ranging from politics, families, educational institutions, sports to civil societies (Andersen, 2016).A good example of a transformational leader in UAE is Shaikh Zayed Bin Sultan. He is a great inspirational leader respected by the rich and the poor. He has made great contribution in charitable works, development of housing facilities, and empowerment of Emirati women. The contributions of Shaikh Zayed Bin Sultan can be attributed to transformational and effective leadership skills. Leadership skills may vary from one leader to another. As a result, different scholars have developed divergent perspectives about leadership. According to Kahrobaei & Mortazavi (2016), leadership is the ability to build confidence in men and women, a concept that acts as a form of inspiration to bring transformational change. On the other hand, Ruben & Gigliotti (2016) viewed leadership as a dynamic process responsible for developing capacities in the followers with the aim of attaining a particular goal. Lastly,Hughes (2016) described leadership as a process, not a position. From these perspectives, a leader must make things happen by interacting with his/her followers.
Transformational change involves effective leadership and effective leadership must be the central goal of any successful organization (Van der Voet, 2014). It guides the followers on how to handle changes. The manager or the leader provides a strategic intent with the aim of influencing the outcome. Also, the leader acts as a source of legitimate power. He/she develops relations and motivates his or her followers towards the attainment of a goal. In this regard, the leader mobilizes the resources and the followers to accomplish a particular task. This fact implies that effective leadership is a combination of personal competency, empowerment, and ability to inspire (de Zilwa, 2016). Effective leadership can be measured through promotion ratings, superior’s rating, moral integrity, and work unit performance (Mapfumo et al., 2017). Based on these ratings, effective leadership may cause satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the followers which may in turn influence the overall performance of the leader (Peri, Gofman & Tuval-Mashiach, 2015).Also, effective leadership can be measured through assessment of profit margins in business organizations (Sethuraman & Suresh, 2014). On the other hand, transformational leadership can be measured through assessment of employee performance in the absence of their leaders (Landis, Hill & Harvey, 2014). Lastly, transformational leadership can be measured through assessment of employee satisfaction.
Value-based model of leadership
Transformational change involves value addition. A leader who adopts value-based model develops his/her skills as an implicational and application thinker(Mattar, 2016). Value based model was developed by Fernandez & Hogan.The model is made of four basic interrelated components; self-reflection, balance, genuine humility, and true self confidence. The components are significant in leading transformational change (Farooq et al., 2017). Figure 1 below illustrates the components of valued based leadership model.

Figure 1: Components of Valued-Based Model

A value-based leader is well versed in the four components as they guide formulation of creative strategies (Voegtlin, 2016). These strategies enable the leader to lead change from the very start. In the process of value addition, leaders encounter dilemmas that require compulsory choices in which every choice has consequences. Therefore, leaders should know when to say yes or no. A valued based leader focuses in promoting sustainable leadership. For leadership to be sustainable, leaders must portray consistency in whatever they do. In addition, McCann and Sweet (2014) described several principles of sustainable leadership. The first principle implies that sustainable leadership lasts. Leaders retain consistency of their actions and that’s what keeps sustainability of leadership. Second, sustainable leadership builds the capacities of the followers. Leaders are committed to see their followers’ growth so that in their absence they can get people to fit in their shoes without shaking the leadership of the organization (Gupta & Singh, 2015). Third, sustainable leadership is contagious such that it spreads. Leaders set role models so that their followers can learn the good qualities of their leader and embrace them. Leaders have special abilities to mentor their followers develop leadership qualities (Herron-Williams, Hoffman, & Brown, 2017). Lastly, sustainable leadership is resourceful such that every person who comes across a leader learns something. Followers admire to be like their leaders. Also, they must act as role models of transformational change (Mattar, 2016). They should possess a strong set of ethics that should be transferred to their followers. The most important aspect of value-based leadership is a moral concept because the effectiveness of the leader in transformational change is judged upon ethical values According to Edú-Valsania, Moriano &Molero (2016), leaders who behave unethically fail in most cases. In addition, value-based leadership tends to give a sense of hope and power by inspiring transformational change (Junker et al., 2016). They discern their personal interests and address the needs of the followers. Also, effective leaders are open to new ideas hence they apply what they learn from colleagues and their followers (Wolfgramm, Spiller & Voyageur, 2016). In addition, they benchmark and attend workshop to better their skills by finding what others do. Therefore, this study will explore the role of leaders in value addition, effective leadership, and transformational change in creating sustainable organizations through transformational leadership.

Conceptual Framework

Leadership approaches and practices

The conceptual framework of the study is given below. It depicts that leadership qualities and approaches are independent variable, that have a potential impact on positive outcome in organizations such as sustainability Financial performance, Personnel turnover and Competitive performance. Sustainability Financial performance, Personnel turnover and Competitive performance are the outcome variables.

Sustainability
Financial performance
Personnel turnover
Competitive performance

Research Methodology
Research methodology explains the overall approach of conducting research. It guides the researcher in all steps ranging from data collection to data analysis.

Research design
Different research designs are used while conducting research in social sciences. Common types of research design include descriptive, exploratory, cross sectional and experimental research design. The selection of hypothesis is purely in the basis of research objectives and hypothesis of the study. In the present research cross sectional research design is used as we will collect data from eth participants only at single time. Cross sectional research design is best at exploring the phenomena as data is collected from participants belonging to different age groups only at a single time period (Creswell, 2013).

Research nature
The research approach is divided in to two categories on basis of nature. There is a deductive and an inductive approach. In the present research deductive approach is used as we have formulated hypothesis by reviewing previous literature and these hypotheses are checked statistically by applying statistical techniques. Whereas in inductive approach there is theory building based on literature (Creswell & Clark, 2017).

Sample design
The sample will be drawn from the employees who are working in different government sectors in UAE. The employees working at different level will be taken as sample. Convenient sampling technique will be used for data sample selection from employees working in different sectors such as maintenance, production, human resource, and operations. The sample size will be 158 and employees are selected from the above-mentioned departments in IT sector.

Method of Data collection
Two broader approached used for data collection include qualitative and quantitative method of data collection. In present research data is collected by using quantitative mode of data collection. Primary data will be collected by distributing self-reported questionnaires among the participants. This method of data collection is chosen as results obtained are more generalizable as compared to qualitative method. Secondary data is also collected by reviewing previous research literature.

Research question
In the present research the impact of leadership qualities on various performance indicators is explored. The present study addresses the research question that Do leadership approaches and practices have an influence on an organization’s sustainability, financial performance, personnel turnover, and competitive performance?

Hypothesis
The hypotheses of the present study are as follows.
H1 Leadership qualities are associated positively with financial performance.
H2 Leadership qualities are associated positively with competitive performance.
H3 Leadership qualities are associated positively with personal turn over.
H4 Leadership qualities are associated positively with sustainability.
H5 Leadership qualities have a significant impact on financial performance, competitive performance, personal turn over and sustainability.

Instruments
Following research instruments will be used.

Leadership qualities
Leadership qualities and approaches will be measured by using 17 close-ended statements. The approaches and qualities that are accessed include charismatic leadership, transactional leadership, transformational leadership, visionary leadership and culture based leadership. Response categories ranged from 1 (“strongly disagree”) to 5 (“strongly agree”).

Financial performance
Financial performance will be measured by using four items scale. The response categories ranged from 1 (“strongly disagree”) to 5 (“strongly agree”).
Competitive performance
Using three items will access competitive performance. Response categories ranges from 1 (“strongly disagree”) to 5 (“strongly agree”).

Personnel turnover
Personnel turnover will be measured from five items whose response categories ranged from 1 (“strongly disagree”) to 5 (“strongly agree”).

Sustainability
Sustainability will be measured by asking six close-ended questions from the employees. Response categories ranged from 1 (“strongly disagree”) to 5 (“strongly agree”).

Analysis
Data Analysis
After the gathering the research information, the data analysis was done through quantitative techniques. The collected data using questionnaires was edited, coded, and calculations done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). In addition, collected data was analyzed by using parentages and the 5 disciplines of learning organization technique (Bryman& Bell, 2011). Observations made were analyzed using descriptive statistics and interpretation given in percentages and frequencies. In addition, quantitative data was analyzed by discussion of case studies. The proposed study was done in three phases within a period of two weeks. Lastly, the references of the study were obtained from secondary sources addressing the matters on transformational leadership.
Procedure for Data Collection
Date collection was done through the online administration of the questionnaires. A web base link was generated and it was shared with the participants after getting a formal permission from the organization head. Instruction for filling the questionnaires were written in the questionnaires. This mode of administering questionnaires was selected because it is quick and effective mode of data collection.
Statistics to be used
After the desired numbers of participants had filled the questionnaire, the data was collected and entered into the SPSS. The descriptive analysis was run to determine the demographic distribution of the selected sample. Correlation and regression analysis will be performed as per requirements of formulated hypotheses.
Results
The results from the SPSS and descriptive are recorded and they relate to the sample of 158 respondents who took part in the research study. The results respond to the core question on the leadership roles within a dynamic changing organization. The research work sought to how leadership practices and approaches influences an organization’s sustainability, financial performance, personnel turnover, and competitive performance.
The results comprise of the descriptive analysis, reliability statistics, correlation analysis, and regression analysis.
1. Descriptive Analysis
Fig. 3: Gender
Female 70 43.2%
Male 89 54.9%
Total 162 100.0%

Fig.4: Age Composition
21-29-year-old 33 20.4%
30-39-year-old 73 45.1%
40-49-year-old 39 24.1%
50-59-year-old 10 6.2%
Under 20 4 2.5%
Total 162 100.0%

Fig. 5: Experience
Between two and ten years 57 35.2%
Less than two years 25 15.4%
More than ten years 77 47.5%
Total 162 100.0%

2. Reliability Statistics
Reliability analysis was done to determine the psychometric characteristics of the research measures. The reliability values of the research measures can be observed in the figures below;
Scale 1: Leadership quality
Table 1:
Cronbach’s alpha reliability for leadership quality scale.
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
0.912 17

The table shows the reliability of the leadership quality scale is 0.91, which is considered an excellent value of reliability. The outcome shows that the measure of leadership quality is reliable for the sample of the study.
Scale 2: Financial performance
Table 2:
Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for financial performance scale
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
0.768 4

The table shows the reliability of the scale of financial performance is 0.76. The value of reliability is considered a good value of reliability. The outcome shows that the measure of financial performance is reliable for the sample of the study.
Scale 3: Competitive Performance
Table 3:
Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for competitive performance scale
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
-0.011 3

The table shows the reliability of the competitive performance scale -0.01. The value of reliability is exceptional and not acceptable. However, this negative value of reliability of competitive performance might be because of less number of items as well as less number of sample.
Scale 4: Personal Turnover
Table 4:
Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for personal turnover scale
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
0.581 6

The table shows the reliability of the scale of personal turnover, which is 0.58. The value of reliability for personal turnover measure is satisfactory for the sample of the research study.
Scale 5: Sustainability
Table 5
Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for sustainability scale
Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items
0.816 5

The table shows the reliability of the sustainability scale. It has been found that the reliability of this scale is 0.82, which is considered as a good value of reliability. The outcome indicates that the measure of sustainability is reliable for the sample of the study.
3. Correlation Analysis
The conceptual model of this study was correlational and hypotheses of the study also describes the relational outcomes between the independent and dependent variables. To address the research questions of this study, correlation analysis has been computed and the results of the correlation analysis have been depicted in the table below.
Table 6:
Correlation analysis and the values of r for the sample of the study
Financial performance Competitive Performance Competitive Performance Sustainability
1.Leadership quality Pearson Correlation .454** .232* .422** .420**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .011 .000 .000
N 123 120 118 120

From the table showing the results of correlation analysis, it shows that all independent variables including financial performance, competitive performance, personal turnover, and, sustainability have positive correlation with the leadership quality. It means that leadership approaches and quality of leadership influences all these variables. If the quality of leadership is improved, it will improve the financial performance, sustainability, and competitive performance and ultimately affect the overall performance of the organization. However, the strength of this relationship is not more, which is showing that there are certain mediating or moderating variables, which can strengthen this relationship. It has also been depicted from this table that first four hypotheses of the study are accepted and verified as leadership approaches and practices have a positive relationship with organization’s sustainability, financial performance, personnel turnover, and competitive performance.
4. Regression Analysis
Regression analysis was computed to determine the predictive relationship between dependent and independent variables. The basic purpose of regression analysis was to find out that either dependent variable, which included financial performance, competitive performance, personal turnover, and sustainability; dependent on independent variable that is leadership. Results of the regression analysis have been shown below in the tables.
Regression 1: Leadership and financial performance
Model Summaryb
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics
R Square Change F Change df1
1 .454a .20 6 .200 2.33791 .206 31.433 1

Model Summaryb
Model Change Statistics
df2 Sig. F Change
1 121 .000
a. Predictors: (Constant), leadership
b. Dependent Variable: financial performance

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 171.808 1 171.808 31.433 .000b
Residual 661.363 121 5.466
Total 833.171 122

a. Dependent Variable: financial performance
b. Predictors: (Constant), leadership

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 6.943 1.298 5.350 .000
Leadership 0.118 .021 0.454 5.607 .000

Coefficientsa
Model 95.0% Confidence Interval for B
Lower Bound Upper Bound
1 (Constant) 4.374 9.512
Leadership .076 .159

a. Dependent Variable: financial performance
The coefficient table shows that leadership is a significant predictor of financial performance on basis of regression. The value of regression is .118. Thus, a part of fifth hypothesis is accepted.
Regression 2: Leadership and Competitive Performance
Model Summaryb
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics
R Square Change F Change df1
1 .232a .054 .046 1.77553 .054 6.716 1

Model Summaryb
Model Change Statistics
df2 Sig. F Change
1 118 .011

a. Predictors: (Constant), leadership
b. Dependent Variable: Competitive Performance

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 21.172 1 21.172 6.716 .011b
Residual 371.995 118 3.153
Total 393.167 119

a. Dependent Variable: Competitive Performance
b. Predictors: (Constant), leadership

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 7.533 .997 7.552 .000
Leadership .042 .016 .232 2.591 .011

Coefficientsa
Model 95.0% Confidence Interval for B
Lower Bound Upper Bound
1 (Constant) 5.557 9.508
Leadership .010 .074

a. Dependent Variable: Competitive Performance
The coefficient table shows that Leadership is a significant predictor of competitive performance on basis of regression. The value of B is .042. Thus, a part of fifth hypothesis is accepted.
Regression 3: Leadership and Turnover
Model Summaryb
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics
R Square Change F Change df1
1 .422a .178 .171 3.30079 .178 25.169 1

Model Summaryb
Model Change Statistics
df2 Sig. F Change
1 116 .000

a. Predictors: (Constant), leadership
b. Dependent Variable: Pturnover

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 274.223 1 274.223 25.169 .000b
Residual 1263.845 116 10.895
Total 1538.068 117

a. Dependent Variable: PTurnover
b. Predictors: (Constant), leadership

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 10.202 1.900 5.370 .000
Leadership .153 .031 .422 5.017 .000

Coefficientsa
Model 95.0% Confidence Interval for B
Lower Bound Upper Bound
1 (Constant) 6.439 13.965
Leadership .093 .214

a. Dependent Variable: Pturnover
The coefficient table shows that leadership is a significant predictor of turnover on basis of regression. Thus, a part of fifth hypothesis is accepted.
Regression 4: Leadership and Sustainability
Model Summaryb
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Change Statistics
R Square Change F Change df1
1 .420a .177 .170 3.21758 .177 25.303 1

Model Summaryb
Model Change Statistics
df2 Sig. F Change
1 118 .000

a. Predictors: (Constant), leadership
b. Dependent Variable: Sustainability

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 261.955 1 261.955 25.303 .000b
Residual 1221.636 118 10.353
Total 1483.592 119

a. Dependent Variable: Sustainability
b. Predictors: (Constant), leadership

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.
B Std. Error Beta
1 (Constant) 9.252 1.850 5.000 .000
Leadership .150 .030 .420 5.030 .000

Coefficientsa
Model 95.0% Confidence Interval for B
Lower Bound Upper Bound
1 (Constant) 5.588 12.916
Leadership .091 .209

a. Dependent Variable: Sustainability
Coefficient table shows that leadership is a significant predictor of sustainability on basis of regression. Thus, fifth hypothesis is accepted.
The table showed that leadership is a significant predictor of financial performance, personal turnover and sustainability. It means that leadership could predict financial performance positively. Similarly, personal turnover rate of the employees is also predicted by the approach of leadership in organization. Sustainability of the organization is predicted by the quality of leadership. Regression analysis shows that fifth hypothesis is accepted.
Summary of Results
Based on the research findings presented above, it has been determined that all measures of the research study are reliable enough except the competitive advantage measure, which is showing a negative value of Cronbach’s alpha for this research sample. The negative value is because of its less number of items, which are three and do not representing the construct completely. However, the results of correlation analysis showed that the research question of the study are answered and accepted. From the descriptive analysis, 162 sampled participants took part in the study, but only 158 responded to the questionnaires administered. The difference shows that 4 participants did not respond to the questionnaires, which is a small number compared to the respondents who took part in the research. 54.9% of the respondents were male, while the remaining 43.2% were females. It shows that the results might be somewhat biased by the additional male percentage. In terms of age composition, the large percentage of respondents were aged between 30 to 39 years accounting for 45.1% of the total respondents. With only 22.9% of the respondents aged 29 years and below. Thus, the research study relied on the input of adult research participants. A larger percentage of the respondents were experienced with respondents with more than then years’ experience being 47.5%. Respondents with between two and ten years of experience were 35.2% and respondents with less than two years being only 15.4%. Correlation analysis has shown that all dependent variables including financial performance, competitive performance, personal turnover, and sustainability have a significant positive correlation with the leadership quality. It means that leadership approaches and quality of leadership influence all these variables. If the quality of leadership is improved then the financial performance, sustainability and competitive performance also improved. Furthermore, it has also been depicted from these results in table 6 that research questions of the study are accepted and verified. Since, leadership approaches and practices have an influence on an organization’s sustainability, financial performance, personnel turnover, and competitive performance. Additionally, the regression analysis was computed to find out the predictive nature of the independent variable for dependent variables. It has been found that leadership predicts all dependent variables. All hypotheses of the present study are accepted.
Discussion
The present research was conducted with the aim to explore the role of leadership qualities in dynamic change in organization. From the literature it was identified that there are various leadership qualities that are associated positively with organizational success. the leadership qualities are charisma; transformational, transactional, visionary and culture-based leaders. These leadership qualities were accessed using questionnaires and composite scores were computed. Moreover, the impact of leadership qualities on financial performance, competitive performance, personnel turn over and sustainability within the organization is accessed. The impact of leadership quality on each outcome variable is accessed independently.
First of all, psychometric properties of the scale used in were established. The Cronbach alpha reliability was computed to check internal consistency of items. For leadership quality total number of items was 17 and reported reliability coefficient was 0.912. Financial performance was measured by using 4 items and reliability coefficient was 0.768. For competitive performance reliability was -0.011, which is not acceptable. It means that items of scales are not appropriate for our sample. Third dependent variable was personal turnover and it was accessed 6 items scale. The reliability of scale is satisfactory to be considered. Sustainability in the organization during change process was measured by using 4 items and reliability was 0.787. The reliability for leadership quality, financial performance, and sustainability was very high, for personnel turnover the reliability is acceptable. For competitive performance, reliability was in negative and therefore it is not acceptable in any case.
Leadership qualities are associated positively with financial performance, competitive performance, personal turnover, and sustainability in change process. The degree to which leadership act as friendly, supportive and have concerns towards subordinate is related positively with better organizational performance. Transformational leadership through its qualities add towards organizational goals. A visionary aspect is added by active involvement of employees in organizational change process. The charismatic leaders guide, motivate and leads the subordinate towards common organizational goals. Active involvement of the employees in organization resulted in choosing right course of action for work (Awamleh & Gardner, 1999). Charismatic leadership, a quality that is considered in present study is found to be associated with direct financial performance of organization. According to Avolio and Bass (1988), there is a direct relationship between charisma and company profit. The extent to which mangers are perceived as transformational is associated more with increased market share and customer base in case of banks (Howell & Avolio, 1993). The transformational leadership is found to be associated more with increased performance of various units in organization. Transformational leadership is marked by the presence of charisma and vision and have a greater sensitivity towards organizational change. Leaders have an active realization of needs of change in organization and empowerment is given to employees. when employees actively involved in change process, then the growth and productivity of organization is impacted positively. This approach is also associated positively with sustainable and competitive organizational environment (Mehmood & Arif, 2011).
The regression analysis has shown that leadership qualities have a direct impact on financial performance, competitive advantage, personal turnover, and sustainability. According to Tawaha (2016) leadership styles are associated with financial performance of the organization in Jordan companies. There exists a positive correlation between transformational leadership style and performance of the firm. Transformational leadership style is associated with organizational performance in IT firms if Singapore (Zhu, et al. 2005). Kieun (2010) also conclude that qualities associated with transformational leadership style are the strongest factor that is related to better performance, increased satisfaction and high level of commitment of employees towards change process.
Conclusion
In summary, there is a positive correlation between financial performance, competitive performance, personal turnover, and sustainability aspects, and the leadership quality. In the recent times, the leadership roles have become dynamic and varying depending on the organizational performance and responsibilities. From the research findings, when the leadership quality of a company improves, it will lead to an improvement in financial performance, competitive performance, personal turnover, and sustainability in the company. Today, development of effective organizations is dependent largely on good leadership qualities. It is necessary that organization must understand the connection between leadership and organizational success. The present study has confirmed the link between leadership qualities and organization performance and sustainability in the organization foe change process. From the results, it is clear that leadership plays an effective role in improving performance of organization and increasing competitive advantage. Organizations should work on adopting effective leadership style to deal with the change process to improve the performance of the organization. The improvement of the organizational leadership quality is necessary in improving the financial performance and success of the organization. Leadership qualities investigated in the present study have an effective role in motivating and facilitating the employees in change process and thus, when organization is undergoing change, the performance is not impacted negatively.
Recommendation
Based on the research findings, it is recommendable to improve leadership quality in the organization to help in adopting to potential changes in the organization and sustain organizational success through improved financial performance, competitive performance, sustainability, and personal turnover. To improve future research works, it is recommendable to collect data from leaders as the current study only gathered information from employees only. The comparison of the information from the leaders and employees will help to obtain more reliable and effective research information on the opinion of leaders about their leadership qualities. Self-report questionnaires are subjected to response biasness and thus, the data from mixed method should be taken such as by conducting interviews or observing leaders in organization. Further research is necessary to determine the validity of research hypothesis from the different organizations to determine whether the hypothesis holds. The additional research work will provide relevant knowledge and information to enrich the knowledge on the influence of leadership quality on organizational success.
Limitation of this Study
The research study relied on online administration of questionnaires to collect data and information. The researcher has less or not control over the administration of the online questionnaires. Moreover, the researcher not be able to see the respondent making it difficult to determine whether the responses given are accurate. The researcher might not be able clarify any responses provided by the respondents through the online questionnaires. Some respondents did not also provide full responses to the questions asked in the questionnaires.

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Appendix
Dear Participant:
Thank you for agreeing to participate in this study of workplace interactions. This survey is part of an ongoing program of organizational research being conducted by the researchers listed below. The general purpose of the research is to better understand what individuals think and feel about workplace culture change, and supervisor-subordinate interactions, and how those thoughts and feelings are related to various attitudes and behaviors.
Your participation in the research is important for the overall success of the project, and we greatly appreciate your help! We assure you that complete confidentiality and anonymity is guaranteed. As such, please do not put any identifying marks on the survey. Please read the instructions carefully, don’t leave any questions unanswered, and be as honest and open as possible. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact us.
To answer the questions below, please read each statement and respond by circling the statement that best describes your honest feelings/opinions about the statement. Responses to each item are measured on a 5 points scale where 1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neither disagree nor agree; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree

Demographic information
Q 1. Gender?
□ Woman
□ Man
Q2 Your age?
□ 19-year-old or younger
□ 20-29-year-old
□ 30-39-year-old
□ 40-49-year-old
□ 50-59-year-old
□ 60-year-old or older
Q3. Where do you work?
Kindly write name of department
Q4. How long have you worked for your organization?
□ Less than two years
□ Between two and ten years
□ More than ten year

Leadership qualities
A transformational leaders have many qualities, which help the leaders to participate actively with his subordinates. In below questionnaire different qualities associated with transformational leadership style are accessed separately.
Section A
In this section, we are interested in your feelings/opinions about leadership qualities. Please let us know, to what extent you agree with the following statements. Wherein,1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neither disagree nor agree; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree
Charismatic leaders 1 2 3 4 5
1 My supervisor would tell me about my job performance
2 My supervisor will help me build self-confidence, and the complete tasks to achieve departmental objectives
3 My supervisor will take the initiative to find the crux of the problem and take effective action to supervise me
4 My supervisor will provide a new thinking approach for my difficult problem
5 : My supervisor will agree with me that if I want to get paid, then I should do something.
6 am aware that once the task is done, I can expect what reward it will be.
7 My supervisor will inspire me with new ways to think about old problems
Transactional leadership
8 Unless the target cannot be reached, my supervisor does take actions.
9 Unless the problem gets worse, my supervisor interferes.
Transformational leadership
10 To work with my supervisor makes me feel good.
11 My supervisor inspires me to rethink the key points of the past smooth operation
Visionary leadership
12 I believe that my supervisor’s judgement is sufficient to solve any difficulties.
13 My supervisor will inspire enthusiasm for my participation in corporate affairs.
14 I am confident in my supervisor
15 My supervisor is the standard for me to learn and intimate.
Culture-based leadership
16 My supervisor gives me the confidence to achieve the task alone.
17 My supervisor makes me feel proud of being a member of the department

Financial performance
The success of any organization is measured in terms of its financial performance. In below questions performance of organization is accessed.

Section B
In this section, we are interested in your feelings/opinions about your change readiness in your organization. Please let us know, to what extent you agree with the following statements. Wherein,1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neither disagree nor agree; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree

Please let us know, to what extent you agree with the following statements.
1 2 3 4 5
Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
1 2 3 4 5
The company’s sales growth rate was higher than that of the competitors last year.
The company’s after-tax net income growth rate was higher than that of the competitors last year.
: The company’s return on investment was higher than that of the competitors last year.
The company’s employee productivity was higher than that of the competitors last year.

Competitive performance
Another indicator for accessing the performance of organization is in terms of its performance with respect to its competitors.
Section C
In this section, we are interested in your feelings/opinions about your competitive performance of your organization. Please let us know, to what extent you agree with the following statements. Wherein,1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neither disagree nor agree; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree

1 2 3 4 5
1 The company’s image is better than that of the competitors.
2 The company’s attraction to professionals was higher than that of the competitors
3 The company’s employee morale is higher than that of the competitors.

Personnel turnover
Measuring turnover help the organization to estimate how much employees are leaving organization and what are reasons.
Section D
In this section, we are interested in your feelings/opinions about your turnover intentions. Please let us know, to what extent you agree with the following statements. Wherein,1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neither disagree nor agree; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree

1 2 3 4 5
As soon as I find a job, I will quiet the organization
I often think of quitting of my job.
I will not leave organization in future.
As far I look ahead, I intended to stay in organization.
I prefer to continue working for this organization.
It is important for me to spend my whole career here in this organization.
Sustainability
Measuring performance on non-financial indicator is also important for modern organization.
Section E
In this section, we are interested in your feelings/opinions about sustainability performance of your organization.. Please let us know, to what extent you agree with the following statements. Wherein,1 = strongly disagree; 2 = disagree; 3 = neither disagree nor agree; 4 = agree; 5 = strongly agree

In my organization an emphasis is to 1 2 3 4 5
Conserve and enhance the use of the raw materials by efficient usage through reduction, reuse and recycling concepts
Reducing hazardous material
Conserve and enhance the natural resources by efficient usage and environmental emission reduction
Conserve and enhance energy resources by efficiently using and reducing energy consumption
Providing primary health care facilities
Providing primary health care facilities

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GET IN TOUCHAvantage Social links
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