Canadian Legal System

Name
Instructor
Course
Date
Canadian Legal System
The Canadian Legal system calls for an aboriginal accused person, to have a different set of considerations in sentencing as opposed to non-indigenous suspects and convicts. As in the case with the 20-year-old aboriginal woman, she argued her case, citing that she was an indigenous resident of Canada brought up and raised in conservative areas of Clee (Gladue 702). For grievous crimes such as manslaughter in the judicial systems of other countries, it is a matter of life imprisonment or death. Nonetheless, considering the accused is aboriginal, the verdict of the sentence calls for three years imprisonment and a ten-year ban on possession of weapons. For what many think to be the most lenient verdict ever, the aboriginal accused further appealed on the verdict deeming it unlawful. The essay, therefore, focuses on the effects on indigenous Canadians on crime through analyzing the case study.
The aboriginal girl is accused of manslaughter by stabbing his boyfriend to death. Following their argument on infidelity, the girl accused the boyfriend of cheating on her with her sister, the 20-year-old than 19, took upon herself to solve the issue by killing his boyfriend (Gladue 678). When arraigned in the court of law, the aboriginal girl lawyer argued that the girl was only a teenager 19 years of age and emotionally immature. Furthermore, the lawyer articulated the accused suffered from hypothyroid conditions that forced her to lose control over her emotional feelings. Showing signs of remorse, the girl pleaded guilty.
The judge took into account that the aboriginal girl stabbed the victim twice, a second time after the deceased tried to escape. The verdict considers the offense to be a second-degree murder that is subject to grievous consequences. The fact that she admitted not to fear the deceased makes her an aggressor. However, the judge took into account the accused had two children and was pregnant, making her a neutral party. She was clean of criminal records, and she was on an active program to stop alcohol abuse. The verdict, according to the judge, was reasonable considering the factors mentioned earlier, further offering frequent paroles to the convict (Gladue 692). The decision, however, seemed harsh to the aboriginal girl, considering she came from an indigenous community.
Section 718. 2 (e) dictates that judges to take the cases of aboriginal people individually as well as different as circumstances of indigenous people are also unique (Gladue 672). While sentencing an aboriginal person, the judge should take into account the background and systematic that would lead an aboriginal person to commit the offense. Additionally, the type of sentence and sanctioning of aboriginal people should be appropriate to the convict’s conditions. As favorable as it may seem to indigenous Canadian people, the section further calls for the type of sentencing to be of fewer years compared to non-aboriginal people for the same offense, depending on the circumstances (Payne 68). The section played a significant role in affecting the judge’s decision in the sentencing.
The aboriginal girl, however, filed an appeal suggesting that the initial judge did not pass the verdict based on aboriginal people. Even though when asked, the counsel of the accused said that the girl came from a regular community, new evidence brought forward showed that the aboriginal girl was born in Clee, but raised in an urban indigenous community. Section 718. 2 (e) nonetheless applies to all aboriginal people despite the area of residence, either in a large city or rural areas. The girl, therefore, argues that the judge failed to take into account the systematic and background factors that would have caused her to commit the offense. Eventually, her appeal was dismissed and served the initial sentence.
Conclusion
Indigenous Canadian residents have an advantage, as their cases are treated more leniently, and many factors are considered. As in the case of the aboriginal girl, the sentence might have been severe in other countries. However, section 718 (e) strictly articulates that indigenous people are not entitled to automatic reduction of sentence on conviction. It is only dependent on the systematic and background information.

Works Cited
Gladue, Tanis. “The Attorney General of Canada, Attorney General for Alberta and Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto.” (1999): 688-741.
Payne, Sharon. “Aboriginal Women And The Law.” The Laws (66-72): 2009.

MGMT617 – Research Methods Guidelines for Assessment Task 3: Proposed research design

MGMT617 – Research Methods
Guidelines for Assessment Task 3: Proposed research design
The meat of a research proposal is the methods section. You have been preparing for the entire unit to assemble a rigorous, well-justified, feasible, and ethical research design for your proposed study. This proposal ought to resemble the methods section of most scholarly articles in your topic area.
Your task for the third assessment is to (1) write up a thorough and well-justified methods section for your proposed project; (2) discuss how the proposed study is feasible and ethical; and (3) reflect on the strengths and limitations of your proposed study using concepts covered in the course.
These three elements of your assessment task map directly onto the marking rubrics (shown on pp. 4-6 of this document, pp. 16-18 of the unit outline). Criteria 1 and 2 refer to your methods section. Criteria 3 refers to your discussion of feasibility and ethics. Criteria 4 refers to your reflection on the strengths and weaknesses of your research design, drawing on unit’s readings and online content to make your arguments.
Recommended structure:
• Start with a brief (re-)statement of the topic and research question (one paragraph).
• Use the first major section to cover all relevant elements of the research methods. Be sure to both describe and justify your choices. Use headings for the following subsections:
o Research design section: describe whether you have chosen to conduct a quant or qual study, as well as the specific type of quant or qual study (e.g. field survey, quasi-experiment, participant observation, semi-structured interviews).
o Research setting section: describe the setting in which the study will be conducted.
o Participants section: summarize and justify the intended sample, sampling strategy, inclusion/exclusion criteria to be used. If planning to use secondary data, consult with your lecturer for slightly revised guidelines.
o Procedure section: summarize and justify how you will collect data, including but not limited to securing organizational access, recruiting participants, maximizing response rates, and collecting data (when, how often, from whom, which variables). If planning to use secondary data, consult with your lecturer for slightly revised guidelines.
o Materials section
? If quant, list the psychometrically validated measures to be used (if opting to construct your own measure, please consult your lecturer for revised guidelines) and any evidence that the measure is valid.
? If qual, outline the interview schedule you plan to use (questions, probes) with supporting justification.
? If using secondary data, describe in detail the indices to be used and any evidence for their validity.
? Note: Remember that the term ‘valid’ has a precise meaning in research. If you are unsure, consult your lecturer.
o Analysis section – very briefly describe how you would know if your hypothesis were supported (quant, secondary data), or how you would distilldistil answers to your research question from the qualitative data to be collected (qual)
• The second section (2-3 paragraphs) covers feasibility and ethics. Briefly summarize in one paragraph each the practical feasibility and ethical considerations in your study. For the paragraph on ethical considerations, you are expected to: (1) identify possible harms to participants from participating in the study; and (2) explain precisely how you mitigate that harm in your research design. In a separate short paragraph, you may also briefly discuss the implications of your proposed study for practice. Explain exactly how the knowledge generated in your study can be used in the workplace.
• Use the third section (2-4 paragraphs) to summarize both the strengths and limitations of your proposed study, linking back to principles in the unit readings and LEO talks. Just as in the first two assessment tasks, whenever you draw on criteria from unit content, please be explicit.
General guidelines
• Word limit is 2,500 words, maximum. You may use fewer than 2,500 words; that’s not an issue. The word limit excludes references.
• Look to the methods sections of high-quality articles in your area for inspiration. That’s the kind of writing and structure that we are looking for.
• Don’t forget to justify your methodology choices! That’s the entire 2nd criterion of the rubric.
• High-quality writing is important. Researchers need to be understood by the general public. The most important thing is that the writing is organized logically. A few grammatical errors will not be too bad. However, writing that is incomprehensible or lacking logical structure will earn poor marks on the last criterion in the rubric.
More information about when and how to submit, as well as the assessment rubrics, can be found in the EUO.
As always, please feel free to get in touch with your lecturer with your questions, clarifications, and concerns. S/he will typically respond within 1-2 business days.

COIT20245 Assignment 2 1. Introduction In this assignment

COIT20245
Assignment 2
1. Introduction
In this assignment, you are to implement a console application that supports simple BMI (Body Mass Index) analysis functionality through a class called BMIAnalyser. A phased implementation approach is recommended; refer to Appendix 2 for further details.
2. The Application
The data to be analysed is to be loaded from 3 arrays containing person identifiers, heights (in metres) and weight (in kgs) using the loadFromTables() method provided in Appendix 1. Loading involves the creation of objects of type Record from each data triple (id[i], height[i], weight[i]). These are to be stored in an array of type Record called data. The size of this array is to be the same size as the data arrays. During loading, the BMI for each individual is calculated, using the following formula:
BMI = weight / (height*height)
where weight is in kilograms and height is in metres. The corresponding category is then determined as follows:
BMI
Category (kg/m2)
from to
Very severely underweight 15
Severely underweight 15 16
Underweight 16 18.5
Normal (healthy weight) 18.5 25
Overweight 25 30
Obese Class I (Moderately obese) 30 35
Obese Class II (Severely obese) 35 40
Obese Class III (Very severely obese) 40
This allocation is to be provided as a separate (private) method called classify() that is not provided in Appendix 1. The code for loading is provided in Appendix 1 as the method loadFromTables().
In order to facilitate search, data is to be maintained in ascending order of person id. Sorting is to be done after loading, using a method called sortById(). This method must implement the insertion sort algorithm. Note that loadFromTables() and sortById() are to be invoked from the constructor for the BMIAnalyser class
The application’s View class is to execute (using a switch statement) the following command options:
1. Display the record for a specified person
2. Display records for all persons with BMI values within a specified range.
3. Display the minimum, maximum and average BMIs
4. Exit the application
As it is a console application, the user will need to be prompted to enter a command and its arguments (if any). My personal preference is for a minimal interaction scheme, as shown below: run:
The following commands are recognised
Display this message 0
Display a specific subject record: 1 subjectID
Display records for all subject records within a range 2 bmi1 bmi2
Display statistics (minimum, maximum and average marks) 3
Exit the application 9
1 S01
S01,1.8,80.0,24.7, Normal (healthy weight)
Note that
1. Each command is designated a number
2. Command 1 requires a single argument – the subject id
3. Command 2 requires 2 arguments – the lower and upper bounds of a range of BMI values
4. I have added a “help” command (command 0)
5. The command options are displayed at the start of the application and whenever a “help” command is entered, rather than than after each command.
6. Records are displayed with no explanation of the fields
Feel free to adopt the above scheme or if you prefer, implement a more verbose interaction scheme.
For the commands that require arguments ( i.e. command 1 and command 2), note that
a. For commands 1 and 2, basic error checking is expected. For command 1, an error message is to be displayed if an id does not exist. For command 2, an error message is to be displayed if a member of the range is 0 or 100 or if the second member of a range is less than the first member.
b. For command 2, the range is exclusive of the values specified. Consequently, having both members of a range equal is to be flagged as an error.
c. For command 1, binary search is to be used.
d. For command 2, the results are to be stored in an ArrayList for display
The application must conform to the class diagram of Figure 1, although additional private members and methods are permitted.
Figure 1. Class Diagram
Note that in Figure 1, the visibility of class methods and attributes are designated as + (public) and – (private). Associations are annotated with a label (for readability) and multiplicity. The multiplicity captures the number of object instances that can be involved in the association. In this case, only two values apply – 1 and *, which means many.
3. Submission
You are to submit a zipped folder containing
• The four .java files that comprise your application. Alternatively, if you have used NetBeans, this can be replaced with a zipped project folder. Details of how to do this are provided in the NetBeans FAQ on the unit website.
• Report.docx. This file contains a test report that includes student name, student ID number, unit name, unit code, a test plan and test results. The test plan is to contain a list of the input values that you have used to test the program, the expected output values and the actual output values generated by your program. The test results are screenshots to show that that the program generates the actual outputs shown in the test plan.
Note that because BMI is calculated as a floating point value, we can’t (in general) test it for equality. What this means in terms of your test plan is that you do not need to test the category end points – all you need to do is to generate one set of inputs (and the corresponding output) per category. In generating these inputs, you may find a BMI calculator, such as https://www.heartfoundation.org.au/your-heart/know-your-risks/healthy-weight/bmi-calculator useful. Note that markers will use their own test data when testing your assignment.
4. Marking Criteria
Criteria
Marks
Allocated
1 Functionality: Assignment2 class (2 marks)
Construction of objects as per spec /2
2 Functionality: View class (3 marks)
Command loop implementation /2
Constructor implementation /1
3 Functionality: Record class (2 marks)
Constructor, getters implementation /2
4 Functionality: BMIAnalyser class (13 marks)
Find record by id (0 if binary search not used) /3
Find records by range of BMI /3
Find lowest BMI /1
Find highest BMI /1
Find average BMI /1
Sort records (0 if insertion sort not used) /3
Calculate category /1
5 Coding Style (5 marks)
Program logic /1
Spacing and indentation conventions /1
Naming conventions /1
Comments /2
6 Report (5 marks)
Test plan /3
Test results /2
Sub-Total /30
Penalties
Does not compile/run: 25-30 marks
Late submission : 5% (1.5 marks) / day or part of a day
Total /30

Appendix 1
The code for the BMIAnalyser. loadFromTables() method (which is to be called from the BMI Analyser constructor) is as follows:
private void loadFromTables() { String[] subjects = {
// your values go here
};
double[] height = { // your values go here
};
double[] weight = { // your values go here
};
nrecords = subjects.length; data = new Record[nrecords]; for (int i = 0; i nrecords; i++ ) { double v = weight[i]/(height[i]*height[i]);
String c = classify( v );
Record r = new Record( subjects[i], height[i], weight[i], v, c );
data[i] = r;
}
}
Appendix 2
It is good practice to develop an application incrementally. The idea is that the work is broken up into phases, with each phase producing a working system. Furthermore, if a phase involves the provision of multiple functionalities, as in Phase 3 below, these should also be tackled incrementally. The advantage of this approach is that you have a series of working systems that you can demonstrate to the customer. In your case, it means that you can always submit a working system, albeit one perhaps with limited functionality. For this to work properly, you need to save copies of your working versions as you go. This way of doing things is such a good idea (especially for team development) that software support is readily available in the form of version control systems such as SVN, GIT, CVS etc. However, we don’t introduce you to version control until later in your course.
In terms of how you might phase this assignment, below is how I went about it, given that I was working from a class diagram. Arguably, it would be better to start with Phase 2 and have an initial application that produces output. I didn’t do this as Phase 1 is straightforward and much of it is needed for Phase 2 anyway.
Phase 1.
1. Create all classes with members and dummy methods as per the class diagram. Where constructors set member variables via parameters, add code to do this. Leave void methods with an empty body. Where methods require a return value, just return a sensible typeconsistent default value, as shown below for the BMIAnalyser public methods:
public Record find( String sid ) {
return new Record ( sid, 0, 0, 0, -none- );
}
public double lowestBMI() { return 0.0;
}
public double highestBMI() { return 0.0;
}
public double averageBMI() { return 0.0;
}
public ArrayList Record find( double bmi1,double bmi2 ) { ArrayList Record alr = new ArrayList (); alr.add( new Record ( -S01-, 0, 0, 0, -none- ) );
alr.add( new Record ( -S02-, 0, 0, 0, -none- ) ); return alr;
}
We could have returned null for the methods that return object references, but I chose to return something slightly more interesting. Bear in mind that if find(String sid) is unsuccessful, returning null is a good way to indicate failure and you will homework help ultimately need to test for this. In the case of find(double bmi1, double bmi2), there are two sensible choices – either return null or return an empty list on failure. Also note that you will have to include any import statements that are needed.
2. In the main() method, add the following code:
BMIAnalyser a = new BMIAnalyser(); View v = new View( a );
v.commandLoop();
Do not proceed to Phase 2 until this code compiles. You now have an application that compiles but when it runs, no output will be produced.
Phase 2.
Get the command loop working with the dummy methods. You will need to provide real getter methods for the Record class. You might find it helpful to write some private helper methods, e.g.
private String help() { return
-The following commands are recognised -+
– Display this message 0 -+
– Display a specific subject record: 1 subjectID -+
– Display records for all subject records within a range 2 bmi1 bmi2 -+
– Display statistics (minimum, maximum and average marks) 3 -+
– Exit the application 9- ; }
and perhaps display methods for commands 1,2 and 3.
When I did this with our dummy testing methods, the following output was generated:
run:
The following commands are recognised
Display this message 0
Display a specific subject record: 1 subjectID
Display records for all subject records within a range 2 bmi1 bmi2
Display statistics (minimum, maximum and average marks) 3
Exit the application 9
1 xxxx
S01,0.0,0.0,0.0,none
2 0 100
S01,0.0,0.0,0.0,none
S02,0.0,0.0,0.0,none 3
Lowest BMI is 0.0
Highest BMI is 0.0
Average BMI is 0.0
9
BUILD SUCCESSFUL (total time: 58 seconds)
Note I have displayed records very tersely; you will need to at least add member names. Also, the interaction is minimalist. You may prefer to display the menu before every command and explicitly prompt for all inputs – either style is fine.
Phase 3
We now need to
1. populate the bmi analyser with data using the code provided
2. change the relevant bmi analyser methods to use this data rather than just returning dummy values as in Phase 2.
Note that
1. we can do the changes one at a time, retaining dummy methods for the commands that we are yet to work on.
2. generating statistics will be the same regardless of whether the records are in sorted order (they are to be sorted according to subject id) so that is a good (and easy) place to start.
Phase 4
Test the application. Make sure that error checking (as requested) works. Also change the data to introduce edge cases. E.g. what will happen with 0 records? One record? Etc.

Social Media and Political Media

Social Media and Political Media
Many governments worldwide have embarked on the use of social media to create awareness among the citizens as well as ensure transparency. The rising use of social media serves several roles including bridging the gap between governments and its citizens.
Information is readily available, and people are in a position to raise their concerns regardless of their geographical distribution. Research indicates that 50% of the top ten most visited online sites are social media with Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube taking the largest share.
The proliferation of several social media has enabled people to be more connected to each other. Social connection and interaction have significantly increased, and its impact widely felt. Players in the different arena like social, economic, and political sectors have engaged in the use of social media to propagate their agendas.
The social media is, thus, turning out to be a political media. There has been a lot of uprising in the Arab world with political and civil unrests taking center stage. A study conducted in more than 170 websites of Saudi government reveals Facebook, Twitter, and Youtube as the highly used form of social and political communication. This study will analyze the role played by the social media in politically unstable countries of the Arab world as well as implications in the political arena. The increased popularity of social network sites has seen people engage in several sectors including online business by communicating to customers and making sales across borders. Social network sites like Facebook have become an avenue for people to engage not just socially but also in political and economic arenas. This article gives an insight of the current technology application and the benefits accrued to its use.
The use of devices like laptops and smartphones by individuals in sharing of information regarding the happenings of the day has increased awareness due to the speed with which information is being shared.
A website together with social network sites enable people to stay up to date by getting to know the social and political occurrences.Social media is vital to the human engagements and often plays a significant role on the business and non-business issues.
People engage in criticizing each other, knowledge sharing, and reflection through the internet. Social and political media are essential components in the provision of information over the internet.
http://repositori.uji.es/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10234/109821/TFM_Niyonzima_Oswald.pdf.txt;jsessionid=8AC2CD2B220BD044D111C99E0FF435B9?sequence=4 67%
http://iafor.org/archives/proceedings/ACAH/ACAH2014_proceedings.pdf 62%
People engage in criticizing each other, knowledge sharing, and reflection through the internet. Social and political media are essential components in the provision of information over the internet.
The readers can access the unedited information reaction without censorship from chat rooms mediated.
http://studentaffairs.com/vcs/2007entries/FloridaStateUniversity_Bracken.ppt 100%
http://www.academia.edu/7750933/PEDAGOGICAL_BENEFITS_OF_BLOG_IN_HIGHER_EDUCATION 91%
http://www.mediafactory.org.au/yan-zhao/2015/01/23/blogging-literary-machines-in-21st-century/ 100%
https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI8006.pdf 91%
The readers can access the unedited information reaction without censorship from chat rooms mediated.
The simplicity in the use of social provides an avenue for an immediate and responsive means of interaction among the internet users.
http://supremeessays.net/samples/Business/fashion-blogging.html 67%
The simplicity in the use of social provides an avenue for an immediate and responsive means of interaction among the internet users.
Social media promote community growth and collaborative dynamics within the society.
http://supremeessays.net/samples/Business/fashion-blogging.html 67%
Social media promote community growth and collaborative dynamics within the society.
Application of social media in various fields perpetuates the existence of autonomy and offers a forum for interaction.
http://supremeessays.net/samples/Business/fashion-blogging.html 63%
Application of social media in various fields perpetuates the existence of autonomy and offers a forum for interaction.
Political and social media are the ideal places for presenting several aspects and problems that arise in the political arena.
http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/documents/youth/fact-sheets/youth-political-participation.pdf 50%
Political and social media are the ideal places for presenting several aspects and problems that arise in the political arena.
This site gives a platform for citizen to voice their views and an opportunity to express their likes and dislikes.
https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/free_download/9780262524834_Youth_Identity_and_Digital_Media.pdf 75%
This site gives a platform for citizen to voice their views and an opportunity to express their likes and dislikes.
Social media is a phenomenon that is emerging and is relevant to the discussion of identities.
http://supremeessays.net/samples/Business/fashion-blogging.html 60%
https://mitpress.mit.edu/sites/default/files/titles/free_download/9780262524834_Youth_Identity_and_Digital_Media.pdf 75%
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-social-networking/ 63%
http://www.aabri.com/manuscripts/121214.pdf 75%
http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:421039/fulltext01.pdf 75%
http://www.appstate.edu/~stanovskydj/Anthropology_of_Online_Comunities.pdf 75%
Social media is a phenomenon that is emerging and is relevant to the discussion of identities.
The media provides a platform for sharing information by way of making postings into the website.
http://supremeessays.net/samples/Business/fashion-blogging.html 60%
The media provides a platform for sharing information by way of making postings into the website. Role of Social Media in Creating Awareness and Responsibility The government ion Saudi Arabia is making use of social media in delivering of government services.
A research conducted shows that 64 out of 170 government websites make use of social media in service delivery. People become more aware of the services government is offering because of the extensive use of internet.
The usage of social media in Saudi is high among the university students.
http://www.wes.org/ras/TrendsInInternationalStudentMobility.pdf 88%
http://www.ijetch.org/papers/516-R002.pdf 75%
http://www.uis.unesco.org/Library/Documents/research-trends-international-student-mobility-education-2012-en.pdf 88%
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/13/1010 75%
The usage of social media in Saudi is high among the university students. The indication is that there is an increasing trend in the usage as new generations comes in existence.
With the international countries undertaking legislations to perfect and safeguard the use of social media, it is evident the notion created here is that these services are of vital importance. Sharing of information raises awareness, and it has proved impossible for socially connected people to miss information on current issues and trends in different environments.
People have also taken advantage of social media to do business. The ease with which companies engage nowadays is attributed to technology with internet being one of the core facets as it allows storing and dissemination of information globally.
The adoption of recent technology makes work more flexible and gives a competitive advantage to businesses as they can operate internationally although not physically. The situation in the Arab world is not different as people have become more aware of the use of internet.
The benefits accrued to it are also a driver in the use of internet. Internet also has major implication on the political arena. Leaders and participants in the social media often voice their view via the social media and most times plan to execute events via the same media.
Jordan, for instance, saw a wave of political uprising since year 2011 just like any other country in the Arab world.
http://mals.camden.rutgers.edu/files/Social-Media-and-the-Arab-Spring.pdf 63%
Jordan, for instance, saw a wave of political uprising since year 2011 just like any other country in the Arab world.
There were waves of protests and demonstrations demanding changes and reforms in the social, economic, and political fields.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_Spring 73%
http://pluto.huji.ac.il/~mshalev/Papers/Rosenhek-Shalev Israeli protest_Cont Soc Sci.pdf 67%
http://newebsite.codesria.org/IMG/pdf/abdelaziz_radi_morocco.pdf?3580/77f152c9b001778dc6c92220ce4f5ebbda418f82 60%
http://www.academia.edu/4678573/The_political_economy_of_Israel_s_Social_Justice_protests_A_class_and_generational_analysis 60%
There were waves of protests and demonstrations demanding changes and reforms in the social, economic, and political fields.
The social media allowed the organizers of the protests to meet and organize activities over the internet as well as develop viable execution plans. They also got views from the wider public on their opinion on particular issues facing the country.
The social networking platform allowed the organizers to measure the opinion of the citizens and evaluate whether their decisions to hold public protests are in the interests of the citizens. The platform for sharing information ensured that the majority of citizens who are connected via the social networks are aware of the happenings in the country.
The pool of information also allowed the organizers to develop viable decisions. The social media was an essential tool for stimulating and persuading the Jordanian citizens to engage in mass movements. A large number of the trade unionists make use social network. They use this platform to encourage full participation of the people in airing their views and also in the decision-making process. In the quest for constitutional reforms, the trade unionists, made use of social media and to a large extent Facebook to sensitize people to join hands in the quest for improvements. Participation in the mass movement across the internet was not influenced by the geographical location. People from across divides engaged in the action. There was no statistical significance of the participation of the mass movement and the geographical location of the citizens.
Sensitization of mass movements done with the word of mouth, as traditionally used to be, would only appeal to people within a confined geographical location. This method would rarely encourage sharing of information as organizers only communicate a unilateral decision to the citizens.
The citizens are, therefore, charged to participate in mass movements for reforms they hardly comprehend. The traditional method of passing information never allowed for sharing of information or debating since at the very best the decisions will be made in public rallies.
Emergence of social media has enabled people to participate both in discussions and sharing information. People become more aware of issues facing them and those facing colleagues. They will, thus, engage in calls for reforms to issues they are better informed and decision they have participated in making.
Information is also widely spread, and people within various geographical locations will be better informed to make decisions. This awareness creation is essential in all sectors of an economy hence the government increased use of social media.
Any mention of social networking in the Arab states brings the notion of the political impact that the media has in the revolution of the Arab spring. However, there are diverse roles that the social networking media is playing in these countries.
This new media has reshaped communication in the contemporary world. There has been an increase in the speed of communication as well increase in access and interaction. The cost involved in this form of media is relatively small as opposed to passing information by word of mouth across diverse geographical world.
There have been significant implications on the publication rules, expressions, and the strengthening of democratic thought. There has also been insignificant implication on human rights and other concepts of freedom. People are in a position to air their views on different issues without fear over the internet. People are in a position to push for their agendas democratically or otherwise and are in a position to enforce the government to deliver better services. The several unrests being observed in the Arab world are planned and well executed with citizens airing their diverse views. The cost of printing and disbursing information has greatly refused making it easier for people to pass information and to be informed.
Most leaders in the Arab world may see the rising technology as a threat to their governance as technology allows exposing government and on a negative note airing of propaganda. Countries like Egypt and Libya have seen their leaders ousted through mass protests.
An extensive and mature social media in Egypt played a lead role in ousting the leader, Mubarak. Organizing of the uprising to oust Mubarak was executed through the social media that saw Mubarak ordering all mobile service providers and other media to relay messages to the subscribers aimed at rallying supporters.
Details of demonstrations in Egypt were spread by Twitter and Facebook while activists’ guide was shared via email (Berenger, 2013). The regime responded by closing down the internet services in the country.
However, the move that was created on the internet did not allow people to back off and instead resorted to analog tweeting. They would hold placards during demonstrations indicating the following day’s gathering venue.
A similar case happened in Tunisia where the government attempt to close the social media backfired as hackers threatened the government. Some analysts have, however, argued that the impact of social media on the Arab uprising was of less significance.
They claim that Libya was in a dark for a period same as Egypt, but this never stopped the revolution. The argument here is that the media supplies information to people outside the country who act in solidarity with colleagues in the country.
Therefore, the argument of non-significance of the media in the uprising by these analysts does not hold water.
Western countries hold interactions and views aired on social media in high regards.
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Western countries hold interactions and views aired on social media in high regards.
These governments often make use of social media to communicate information as well as deliver better services to the population.
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These governments often make use of social media to communicate information as well as deliver better services to the population.
However, the use of the social media in federal institutions among the Arab states is very small with only a few making use of it.
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However, the use of the social media in federal institutions among the Arab states is very small with only a few making use of it.
This has left the use of the media at hands of individuals in the government and any communication made is that of an individual as opposed to government. The information communicated is, therefore, not professional and one that has not been arrived at through a strategic and thoughtful process.
This has left the government with loopholes that activists take advantage of to promote better governance. In this regard, social network has created fear among governments in Arab states as revolutions increases.
Social Media and Decision Making In the present day, there is an extensive interaction and sharing of information throughout the internet. Social media shares the great deal of shared information on the internet on a daily basis.
For instance, on a regular basis 100,000 tweets are posted, Google encounters 2Million plus Google queries, around 4,000 photos shared on Instagram, and a massive content is shared on Facebook and Youtube.
The emergence of social media creates a new landscape that allows for personal connection. Entrepreneurs are up in arms to take advantage of this enormous opportunity to undertake business. Information technology has significantly turned the way we obtain, communicate, and the way we decode information for personal, as well as work decisions.
Social media creates a new platform for the IT interaction and exchange of information. At this age of technology, managers,
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Social media creates a new platform for the IT interaction and exchange of information. At this age of technology, managers,
and general leaders are forced by circumstances to indulge the use of social media in decision-making.
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and general leaders are forced by circumstances to indulge the use of social media in decision-making.
With the kind of information being shared with the social media, policymakers need to interrogate several perspectives and opinions of people regarding different concerns. This enables decision makers to be informed and thus in a position to make informed decisions (Berenger, 2013).
We are often faced with problems that at the highest probability has happened somewhere else. In this regard,
information technology can be used to interrogate various approaches used in arriving at a decision.
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information technology can be used to interrogate various approaches used in arriving at a decision.
Social media has been on the verge of increasing penetration in the lives of the general population.
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Social media has been on the verge of increasing penetration in the lives of the general population.
The evidence in the public arena is that social media has been extensively used in the process of decision-making. For instance,
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The evidence in the public arena is that social media has been extensively used in the process of decision-making. For instance,
it is widely believed that social media was the core force behind the Arab revolution of 2011. Political recall in US has been through the social media platform.
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it is widely believed that social media was the core force behind the Arab revolution of 2011. Political recall in US has been through the social media platform.
The ability to share and coordinate information has been made possible by the social media.
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http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67038/clay-shirky/the-political-power-of-social-media 64%
https://ucollege.wustl.edu/files/ucollege/imce/drp_-_jessica_stanko_2013_the_final_draft.pdf 64%
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The ability to share and coordinate information has been made possible by the social media. It is easier to engage people raise their opinion and lead the same population towards a given revolt.
Professionals in the decision-making process will always indicate having used a particular kind of search engine to arrive at a decision. Collaboration and consultation of decision making, in the current age, is often done via the internet; given the geographical distribution of people and the need to have every stakeholder’s opinion, social media is an integral platform in the lives of decision makers.
Researchers often conduct interview through social media before arriving at a conclusion. Professionals have taken up the use of social media to connect with fellow professionals for corporate engagement and sharing of information.
The social media has moved from just a tool for socializing to a professional tool used in promotion, contracting, and decision-making.
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The social media has moved from just a tool for socializing to a professional tool used in promotion, contracting, and decision-making.
The use of social media in decision-making has been motivated by several factors.
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The use of social media in decision-making has been motivated by several factors.
Information obtained from the Internet often receives high levels of trust. It’s often assumed that this information has undergone mind interrogation before being posted/ this information is, therefore, reliable to a certain extent (Berenger, 2013).
Changes have been rampant in the external and internal social media use within organizations. There has been a paradigm shift in the way government and private business is being carried out. More government institutions are incorporating the use of social media in carrying out their daily activities. There has also been increased the need for peers input towards the decision-making process. Professionals having more networks have a higher chance of gathering more opinion on diverse issues across the networks. Facebook, Twitter, and blogs will give more information as there is a large volume of information being shared.
Political Media and Social Network Marketing Social media is significantly influencing the decisions made in the political arena. Aspirants in the political arena have currently majored in the use of social media to sell their policies and candidature.
The first notable election to have resorted to the web to woe voter5sd was the US presidential election of 2008. The campaign machine turned to use of network to woo the young voter.
About 84% of electors in the country made use of social media at between the ages of 18-24 years. Social media was, therefore, a better platform for campaigning as this age group consists of the eligible electorate.
A healthy democracy encourages the participation of citizens in governance. It may be argued that the emergence of social media has positively impacted on democracy since it provides a means for individuals to communicate with government.
Since the media provides a level playing field for all, it’s necessary to have genuine and authentic conversation. Social media is playing a paramount role in the manner the politics of the day are done and how elected people govern (Berenger, 2013).
Social media creates a platform for leaders to communicate to their subject as well as have the subjects respond and raise queries on leadership. Social media, therefore, allows a two-way flow of information.
This dynamic information exchange makes a more participative and healthier democracy. Nevertheless, social media has not taken over the other media in the political arena. Adverts and interviews on television remain relevant in the current world.
Social media has not entire substituted use of other means of public rallies and demonstrations to air views. Authoritarian regimes restrict the use of social media and thus curtail spread of information.
The traditional media: TV, Radio, have for a long time been widely utilized in these regimes. The information disseminated by these media is often manipulated by the government agencies. There are often regulations that will curtail the freedom of the media and hence certain information may not be released to the public.
This keeps the general public in darkness and often the existing media acts under the authority of the government. Information published is often pro-government. The emergence of the new media has seen authoritarian regimes in big quagmire as information is highly shared on these platforms.
Any information that leaks on the internet is always spread at high speed and across several geographical boundaries. The Arab revolution is significantly seen to have been facilitated by the social media.
Some regimes like Egypt had tried to shut down the use of media, but the impact that had already created could not be brought down. Trade unionists in these regimes have often resulted in the use of social media to mobilize people to rise against the existing governments.
Since year 2011, several leaders of the Arab states have seen a revolution and have been ousted from the leadership. The emergence of this new media has reduced the cost of acquiring information across borders.
Despite the fact that social media has been used widely in the Arab spring, some researchers hold different views. Some researchers argue that the emergence of the new media cannot be effective in bringing down the authoritarian regime. They argue that, authoritarian leaders will use the same media for dissent views propagated in this media. The leaders can provide disinformation that will misguide the recipient of the information. However, these researchers fail to recognize the autonomy of leaders and often portray them as a passive recipient of the information. The preceding in the Arab spring confirms the independence of mind among the populace. When the truth is disseminated, then individual can decode the information and make an informed decision on the next course of action.
Political media did not exist during the Arab spring and politician resorted to the use of social media. Their engagement in this media was not sufficient enough to contain the effort of the populace to bring a revolution.
Social network marketing was at its best as politicians tried to counteract the efforts of the population as well as attempting to minimize the impact of the revolution in the social media (Berenger, 2013).
Politicians have been on the verge of developing political media, and there is a notable increment in this media. Communication by leaders has been making use of these media to inform or misinform their citizens.
Other leaders have resulted in personalized twitter and Facebook account to contain political pressures and communicate to their constituents. The emergence of political media came after the Arab spring after leaders saw its necessity.
Should it have existed before, it would have helped save image of the government through timely communication of information and receiving of queries by the citizens. It’s notable that the Arab revolution happened due to dissatisfaction of the populace with the government of the day.
Lack of a better platform by the populace to air their views also necessitated the uprising against leaders (Berenger, 2013). In conclusion, there is a necessity of a platform in the fields of governance and otherwise for sharing of information.
Decisions in the current world should not be unilaterally made as it affects people across cultural and political divide. Social media has a significant role today and is being incorporated in all sectors of the economy.
The emerging political media is a necessary platform for elected leaders to communicate with their electorate. This will help curb unnecessary uprising and ensure stability in the economy. A stable economy is a catalyst for a growing economy.
Social media had a significant influence in the Arab uprising and its impact on the stability of governance cannot be ignored. North Africa and the Middle East regimes have undergone a revolution that has been propagated by the social media.
Countries in these regions should ensure the existence of an improved communication system where the leaders are able to share information. Given the increased number of people in the social media, it becomes the convenient platform for leaders to engage their subjects.
Social network marketing should be undertaken to sensitize people on the critical role played by social media. The authoritarian regimes have a point to learn from the Arab uprising. There is a need to engage the views of the majority in making decisions. Unilateral decisions made without consideration of the general opinion of the public often leads to disagreements. Government institutions should also incorporate social media into their service delivery. This will ensure they communicate timely information to the people and in turn receive appropriate reaction from the population. This leads to making well thought out decision aimed at meeting the demands of the population. Social network marketing and creation of awareness of different issues is critical to better governance.

Solar Energy Struggles Gaps Paper

Solar Energy Struggles Gaps in the Solar Energy Solar Energy Supply Chain Solar energy supply chain is highly influenced by the imbalanced supply of solar equipment and their respective demand. For instance, there exists a conspicuous supply gap over time in the Indian solar energy supply chain. Indeed, India has grown significantly in terms of demand for sustainable energy solutions in which solar energy is often preferred as the best option due its extensive availability across the country relative to other green resources. In fact, study help the country also boasts of perhaps the biggest band of mean solar energy worldwide (Miller 2009).
Besides the available grid solar energy production and the solar thermal use throughout both commercial and industrial verticals, solar power is also suitable for the decentralized power demands which could eventually assist in electrifying about 400 million people currently not endowed with electric power connection. Consequently, huge demand of energy posed by the existing power gap results in a gap in supply of solar equipment especially because of the nascence stage of development of the industry as well as limited access to essential resources in most countries globally and India in particular. Besides, this challenge is not likely to recede as the power demand is expected to increase by 200% as at 2020 (Clery, 2013).
Solar energy supply chain is also hampered by unfriendly policies in the administration of the industry’s performance. In particular, while the industry focused on catering for the international markets, local markets are restricted to a common off-grid applications as well as the solar thermal industrial segment charged with supply domestic market with domestic heat requirements. The connectivity between local production and supply and their foreign supplies is also highly frustrating particularly in the less developed economies (Wasserman 1979). In particular, foreign supplies are considerably cheaper with relatively high incentives posing significant competition between with global players who purportedly have overcapacity.
Local supplies have the optimal capacity to supply the equipment to the interior more flexibly. However, with foreign supplies, local suppliers are forced to operate at either sub-optimal capacity or even shutting down their operations. In essence, the challenge facing the solar supply chain is the huge imbalance between production and consumption. Similarly, the perpetual disadvantage relative to other suppliers in other global production point also discourages local production and subsequently minimizes the supply capacity within both domestic and foreign markets. This however, does not imply that foreign suppliers provide enough products to cater for the local demands thus, a gap in supply. The same scenario influences both local and international companies producing solar equipments (Williams, N. (2014).
Low demand is also a stimulant of supply. For instance, China had been experiencing a situation of non-existing domestic solar market. In this regard, the country manufactured equipment were focused into the foreign market capturing about 65% of the global solar market by undertaking favorable policies by the government of China.
Absence of such policies in most countries leads to a solar supply chain gap where the demand is not reciprocated by equivalent supply. Besides, other countries have lacked sufficient financial endowment and other incentives that have further discouraged production (Cameron & Craig 2010).
Lack of a strong indigenous supply chain also discourages capital investments as well as eventual growth of the solar energy sector. In some locations, some governments produce extra budgetary support via better Fids in Tariff (FIT) among other incentives to encourage local procurement of solar systems.
However, these instances are exceptional to some governments while majority lacks such incentives. This situation leads to the encroachment of a funding gap (Steele 2005). Additionally, there is acute lack of established national manufacturing policy with a mainstream consideration of the solar industry as one of strategic importance. Some countries that have incorporated this fact have stimulated the growth of supply chain and equitable success in general. For instance, Taiwanese and Korean republics took initiatives to enhance the competitiveness of both semi-conductors and the solar industry as a strategic extension of support to the solar supply chain. Consequently, this led to increased boost of the sector besides enhancing the overall supply chain particularly supplying the local market and beyond. Such governments initiatives are virtually absent in most countries aspects that has been detrimental to the success of supply chains (Hirt 2012).
The complex nature of the supply chain is also a major gap existing in the solar energy supply chain. Essentially, different methods of production results into different cost simulation of the solar equipment dealers an aspect that does not only create shipment confusion but also complicates the shipment exercise.
For instance, Evergreen Solar research indicates that in 2012, it cost less to import finished frame from China than to import raw aluminum from US. This disparity appears as a major check on the supply chain adopted in the importation and supplies of the solar power supplies.
In particular, low cost by item does not act singularly as the only consideration for purchases. Instead, the cost of shipment is also attributed to the supply chain complexities as it comprises of numerous risks in the actual shipment process.
The bureaucracy and quality of solar products for shipment also acts as a condition of consideration for supply (Cameron & Craig 2010). Other Gaps in the Solar Energy Supply Chain There have been major aspects defining the solar energy sector and the industry at large.
The solar industry is mainly characterized with several fluctuations. A major gap existing in this case is the fluctuations by the costs of raw materials in the production of solar equipments.
For instance, the cost of photovoltaic panel is subject to high fluctuation. There have been frequent disparities in the sector. However, recent report shows that the solar energy sector has been encountering consistent growth in the year 2015.
Consequently, with this growth, the number of logistic considerations in solar sector will venture into the equation of complicity of the sectoral performance. Solar factor has also noted that the global PV panel creation has been highly dispersed globally.
There has been particularly high concentration in such locations as China, Germany and the US-based corporations that claim a significantly high market share (Tumber 2015). Essentially, the risks involved in this in importation of solar equipment from long distance foreign producers results in a shift of focus to purchases from local products an aspect that creates a major gap in supply between quality and affordable supply.
The main concept behind this scenario is the presence of high risks in procuring and subsequent transportation of finished equipments from foreign production locations to enhance supplies in most domestic markets that lacks production capacities especially in the developing economies.
As a result, majority of the US-based enterprises prefer procuring panels which are manufactured domestically. In this regard, companies minimize the risks involved in the maritime shipping of the solar panel equipment.
This as a case example presents a significant challenge to not only the US-based organizations but also other players in the entire industry hence necessitating local sourcing. However, this becomes a major challenge in many developing natures aiming at maximizing the utilization of solar energy especially due to the fact that there is a huge gap in industrialization and therefore lacks supply of locally manufactured solar equipments (Onyige 1996).
Besides, the avoidance of imports of solar equipments also encourages the considerations on the manner in which either rails or roads could be influenced to deliver consignments of solar panels. In addition, a number of solar panel producers and resellers focus on the entire consumer markets. In this regard, there exists a supply gap due to lack of capacity for enterprises into pursuing models that are often used in most operations of brick-and-mortar retail processes. This kind of a system also considers the need exerted by homeowners within certain regions besides recognizing the timeframe within which subsequent installation are likely to result and therefore procure sufficient materials towards satisfying the anticipated needs (Brown 1998).
The solar power market is highly demanding. However, one of the factors that hinder growth in the solar market is purchasing costs. In particular, it is not feasible in practice for many average homeowners to buy solar panels and related equipments. In particular, the payment of a contractor in undertaking a procedural installation of PV panels on their roof is considerably challenging with the modest income size. Besides, the returns on investments on the factor of the homeowners residential can also be highly ambiguous (Wheeler & Beatley 2014). Recent studies indicate that is heading to a point where it will become cheaper than payments of electric bills costs among 47 states in US. However, this is not yet a definitive possibility.
This research also incorporated tax credits accruing to solar energy use that implied that even with a drop in subsidies to about 10%. The solar energy would eventually achieve high price parity with certain conventional resources within about 36 states in the United States. However, this scenario of low cost simulation is mainly achievable in developed countries. Nevertheless, the developing nations are also pertinent users of the energy despite the fact that they hardly produce solar panels and related equipment to tap solar energy. In this regard, the fateful reduction of the costs attributable to solar energy use could be relatively hard in such regions that are dependent mainly on imports (Bradley & Hedrén 2014).
Last but not least, there are many reverse logistics consideration eminent in the whole process. The remanufacturing and recycling processes are relevant factors that must be acknowledged in planning solar panel distribution but often overlooked. Materials that are needed in the production of PV panels are obtained globally. Consequently, the refurbishment of outdated models could also assist manufacturers in making the most out of their endowment (Furchtgott-Roth 2012). However, heedlessly purchasing raw materials essential in the creation of such implementations are unnecessarily best practices since such behaviors can result in negative implications on sustainability measures in place.
By virtue of comparison with Bio-fuels supply chains which are mainly comprised of biomass matter, solar energy proves to be environmentally friend but have been attributable to a series of challenges in use.
Indeed, bio-fuels play a very significant role in supplying energy globally with this category ranking second in energy supply in US. Unlike the solar energy which involves delicate transportation of materials responsible for tapping the energy, Bio-fuels equipments are characterized with hardy products while the resource itself comprises of a supply chain possibly regulated by human activities.
This involves recurrent feedstock production that is leveraged by a number of factors such as water and water pricing policies as well as domestic agricultural subsidies among others. On the contrary, solar energy is freely availed in most regions of the world especially regions located between the tropics (United States 2007) This implies that the supply of solar power is highly influenced by demand on high end users as well as ability to tap it.
This implies that the overall demand for the resource is highly restrained as compared to bio-fuel energy which is in use at a global scale both small scale perspective and large scale perspectives as well.
In general, the bio-fuels supply chains is less complicated relative to solar energy supply.

Coffee Place has been the most prosperous coffee chain in the last few years using its growth approaches

Introduction Coffee Place has been the most prosperous coffee chain in the last few years using its growth approaches to drive out much of its rivals. Coffee House has focused on forming a solid network of outlets all over the world while also attempting to penetrate new places all around the globe. The company currently endeavours to be the most prominent and recognized retailer of coffee for an exceptional price to increase the profitability of Coffee Place.
Coffee is the second most regularly traded product in the globe. Unlike several products, changes in coffee quantity and demand are not susceptible to price fluctuations. A coffee shrub can provide sufficient coffee seeds to fill a one-pound crushed coffee throughout each planting season. Coffee seeds are the seeds of crimson-sized berries, the produce of the coffee tree. It averages 3 to 5 years after farming a coffee tree for it to yield profitable coffee beans. The majority of global coffee production originates from the humid highlands of the Western Hemisphere and in the low, scorching parts of Africa and Asia. The southern and central regions of America produce the bulk of coffee transacted in the global commerce. The globe‘s leading coffee producers are Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, and Indonesia.
The planet‘s main importer of coffee is the United States: Kraft, Nestl, Procter & Gamble, and Sara Lee are the main roaster corporations that are responsible for approximately 50 percent of all yearly production of the product. Customers’ requirement for coffee is insensitive to price changes such that when coffee prices increase, consumers do not decrease their coffee use.
Integrating Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Strategy In terms of CSR, Coffee House has good governance, ethical conduct, and social responsibility as the core to their way of running business. Coffee House is driven to create and increase shareholder value. Coffee House also focuses on maintaining the relationship between stakeholders and their company. The definition of CSR in term of Coffee House Company is conducting the business in ways that produce social, environment and economic benefit for the communities. Attracting and retaining our partners (employees), customer loyalty, reducing operating cost, strengthening our supply chain and license to operate, all of those are a few of real benefit to the company.
Environmental Stewardship According to Werther and Chandler (2011), people have used a lot of natural resources, so organizations try to reduce using natural resources. In this part, Coffee House focuses on protecting the environment and urges others to do the same in order to make a great business for humankind. They have launched many projects to encourage the environment.
Community/Social Internal Analysis Wage and Hour Rules Coffee House has paid the salary and compensation for partners (employees) based on hours laws and regulations that mean Coffee House offers the benefits fairly (Werther and Chandler 2011).
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Community/Social Internal Analysis Wage and Hour Rules Coffee House has paid the salary and compensation for partners (employees) based on hours laws and regulations that mean Coffee House offers the benefits fairly (Werther and Chandler 2011).
Workplace Environment All associates (employees) have been handled with appreciation and honour without acting in an offensive, partial, unfair way.In contrast,
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Workplace Environment All associates (employees) have been handled with appreciation and honour without acting in an offensive, partial, unfair way.In contrast,
they are employed in the corporation under afruitful working setting(Werther and Chandler 2011).
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they are employed in the corporation under afruitful working setting(Werther and Chandler 2011).
Workplace Health, Safety, and Security Officers and partners (employees) have cooperated with each other for following the safety regulations,
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Workplace Health, Safety, and Security Officers and partners (employees) have cooperated with each other for following the safety regulations,
practices and training in order to prevent themselves from accidents or injuries (Werther and Chandler 2011).
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practices and training in order to prevent themselves from accidents or injuries (Werther and Chandler 2011).
External Analysis The company believes that real business has to involve and support communities as well. The goals of Coffee House has helped its partners (employees),
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External Analysis The company believes that real business has to involve and support communities as well. The goals of Coffee House has helped its partners (employees),
and customers facilitate communities over 1 million throughout the world in 2015 (Keinert 2008). Nowadays, Coffee House has created several projects to engage communities as following:
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and customers facilitate communities over 1 million throughout the world in 2015 (Keinert 2008). Nowadays, Coffee House has created several projects to engage communities as following:
Youth Action The purpose of the agenda is to provide upkeep to 50,000 young generations to create and engage their communities within 2015 in order to solve problems and develop communities. In 2009,
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Youth Action The purpose of the agenda is to provide upkeep to 50,000 young generations to create and engage their communities within 2015 in order to solve problems and develop communities. In 2009,
Coffee House Foundation This project was established to support communities in many ways all over the world. There are several programs of Coffee House Foundation as following: • Supporting young leaders:
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Coffee House Foundation This project was established to support communities in many ways all over the world. There are several programs of Coffee House Foundation as following: • Supporting young leaders:
• Assisting Coffee, Tea and Cocoa Societies: The program has offered invaluable assistance to farming societies that engage in growing coffee,
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• Assisting Coffee, Tea and Cocoa Societies: The program has offered invaluable assistance to farming societies that engage in growing coffee,
tea and cocoa for the organization by availing knowledge, instructions and financial services to improve the quality of the produce as well as the life of the farmer.
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tea and cocoa for the organization by availing knowledge, instructions and financial services to improve the quality of the produce as well as the life of the farmer.
• Access to get clean water: Ethos water is funding that support people in developing countries to enter the clean water.
http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:353800/FULLTEXT02 93%
http://www.thefundraisingjournal.com/Archive/0912/Starbucks_Company_Spotlight.html 60%
http://psiareview.org/2012/11/02/the-starbucks-delusion/ 80%
http://blogs.ei.columbia.edu/2009/08/11/“ethical”-bottled-water-companies/ 73%
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• Access to get clean water: Ethos water is funding that support people in developing countries to enter the clean water.
• Fostering Education in China: organization subsidized 5 million us dollars to educational programs in China by 2005 (Keinert 2008).
http://worldwidescience.org/topicpages/e/evaluation project iurep.html 50%
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• Fostering Education in China: organization subsidized 5 million us dollars to educational programs in China by 2005 (Keinert 2008).
Ethos Water Fund The objective of Ethos water fund is helping the children who cannot reach the clean water by supporting 5 cents every bottle of Ethos Water.
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http://intentblog.com/sustainable-leadership-qa-peter-thum-ethos-water/ 65%
https://studysoup.com/writ-107b?id=270 60%
http://som.yale.edu/sites/default/files/files/Mercy_Corps_2nd_ed%281%29.pdf 65%
http://writepass.com/journal/2012/11/supply-chain-management-in-starbucks-and-its-impact-on-company-performance-2/ 80%
http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/economic/friedman/mmmarketsegmentation.htm 75%
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Ethos Water Fund The objective of Ethos water fund is helping the children who cannot reach the clean water by supporting 5 cents every bottle of Ethos Water.
So far, Ethos water fund has offered 6 million US dollars to help 420,000 people throughout the world to reach the clean water (Werther and Chandler 2011).
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So far, Ethos water fund has offered 6 million US dollars to help 420,000 people throughout the world to reach the clean water (Werther and Chandler 2011).
Economic Coffee House Company is one of the world-class organizations that are successful in business today.
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http://news.starbucks.com/uploads/documents/Starbucks_Fiscal_2013_Annual_Report_-_FINAL.PDF 60%
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0970389613000499 60%
Economic Coffee House Company is one of the world-class organizations that are successful in business today.
The corporation’s policy is that running ethnic business and doing the right thing are keys to Coffee House’ business. Moreover,
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The corporation’s policy is that running ethnic business and doing the right thing are keys to Coffee House’ business. Moreover,
the company operates business in many aspects by engaging environment, all people and following the laws of each country. Also,
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http://www.chevron.com/documents/pdf/chevronbusinessconductethicscode.pdf 67%
http://www.tata.com/aboutus/articlesinside/Tata-Code-of-Conduct 73%
the company operates business in many aspects by engaging environment, all people and following the laws of each country. Also,
it endeavours to provide quality of products and service, as well as good relationships with both suppliers and customers. All of these are long-term strategies that make Coffee House successful.
http://aalara.com.au/media/user_files/Small Business Modules/4_WORKBOOK–marketing.doc 62%
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it endeavours to provide quality of products and service, as well as good relationships with both suppliers and customers. All of these are long-term strategies that make Coffee House successful.
So as to understand profoundly, the Coffee House business conduct is presented as follows:
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So as to understand profoundly, the Coffee House business conduct is presented as follows:
Coffee House quality and Customer Protection Coffee House concentrates on quality of products since clients’ health and wellbeing are important for business.
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Coffee House quality and Customer Protection Coffee House concentrates on quality of products since clients’ health and wellbeing are important for business.
The business ensure that every process that is clean and hygienic is followed while including good service in the shops.
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The business ensure that every process that is clean and hygienic is followed while including good service in the shops.
Compliance with laws and regulations Coffee House Company has adhered to the laws, guidelines or regulations of every republic where the organization operates its businesses.
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Compliance with laws and regulations Coffee House Company has adhered to the laws, guidelines or regulations of every republic where the organization operates its businesses.
In order to ensure productivity, the company operates its business in an ethnic way and adheres to officially permitted standards.
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In order to ensure productivity, the company operates its business in an ethnic way and adheres to officially permitted standards.
Fair competition Coffee House relies on fair competition laws and supports in the free market. However,
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http://www.adamsmith.org/sites/default/files/images/pdf/unfair_trade.pdf 77%
http://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1861/Competition.pdf 69%
https://mitsloan.mit.edu/LearningEdge/CaseDocs/08 069 Fair Trade Coffee The Mainstream Debate Locke.pdf 62%
Fair competition Coffee House relies on fair competition laws and supports in the free market. However,
Coffee House has to have agreement with competitors or suppliers under regulations such as not talking about price,
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Coffee House has to have agreement with competitors or suppliers under regulations such as not talking about price,
products or markets with competitors or customers do not try to control the market, etc.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing_research 70%
http://www.academia.edu/5189766/PHILIP_KOTLER_MARKETING_MANAGEMENT_SUMMARY_PREPARED_BY 60%
http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/economic/friedman/mmmarketingplanning.htm 60%
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products or markets with competitors or customers do not try to control the market, etc.
Suppliers Coffee House has made long-term relationships with suppliers and sellers as well as work closely together with them.
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Suppliers Coffee House has made long-term relationships with suppliers and sellers as well as work closely together with them.
The company has supported coffee farmers every aspect such as Fairtrade by guarantee prices, offer financial credits, education, and even housing.
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The company has supported coffee farmers every aspect such as Fairtrade by guarantee prices, offer financial credits, education, and even housing.
In order to get high-quality products and control prices as well as protecting the environment where coffee bean is grown and also rising farmer revenue as well (Urip, 2013).
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In order to get high-quality products and control prices as well as protecting the environment where coffee bean is grown and also rising farmer revenue as well (Urip, 2013).
Sales practices and advertising The institution focuses on accuracy and uprightness to clienteles, concerning not only the goods and service but also promotion as well.
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Sales practices and advertising The institution focuses on accuracy and uprightness to clienteles, concerning not only the goods and service but also promotion as well.
All of these are apparentand the customers can prove them(Werther and Chandler 2011).
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All of these are apparentand the customers can prove them(Werther and Chandler 2011).
Confidential information While working with Coffee House, existing partners (employees) do not disclose all non-public information of the company to anybody outside of the organization.
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Confidential information While working with Coffee House, existing partners (employees) do not disclose all non-public information of the company to anybody outside of the organization.
On the other hand, that information has to use company purpose only such as knowledge, technologies, business plans and so on (Werther and Chandler 2011).
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http://dspace.mah.se/bitstream/handle/2043/17771/0L646E-Re-EXAM-PAIR15-EZIGBO-HASSANI-JAFER -.pdf?sequence=2 63%
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On the other hand, that information has to use company purpose only such as knowledge, technologies, business plans and so on (Werther and Chandler 2011).
Financial report Considering the financial reports of company from 2006 to 2009, we realized that in 2006 net earnings $564.25 million increase from 2005 14.0%,
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Financial report Considering the financial reports of company from 2006 to 2009, we realized that in 2006 net earnings $564.25 million increase from 2005 14.0%,
in 2007 net earnings $672.63 million increase from 2006 19.20%,
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in 2007 net earnings $672.63 million increase from 2006 19.20%,
in 2008 net earnings $315.5 million decrease 53.09% from 2007 and in 2009 net earnings $390.8 million increase 23.86% from 2008 (Werther and Chandler 2011).
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in 2008 net earnings $315.5 million decrease 53.09% from 2007 and in 2009 net earnings $390.8 million increase 23.86% from 2008 (Werther and Chandler 2011).
From financial intelligences, it can be observed that the economic corporation has progressed financially beginning 2006 to 2007 and weakened in 2008 and progressed again in 2009.
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From financial intelligences, it can be observed that the economic corporation has progressed financially beginning 2006 to 2007 and weakened in 2008 and progressed again in 2009.
In consequence,progressions of net incomes in 2008 slow down for the reason that the economic disaster in United States and intercontinental markets had affected clienteles which made them unable to maintain their purchasing power.
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In consequence,progressions of net incomes in 2008 slow down for the reason that the economic disaster in United States and intercontinental markets had affected clienteles which made them unable to maintain their purchasing power.
It affected the financial performance of theCoffee House Company as well.
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It affected the financial performance of theCoffee House Company as well.
Benefits of CSR There are numerous reasons why taking Corporate Social Responsibility as earnestly as Coffee House has its rewards:
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Benefits of CSR There are numerous reasons why taking Corporate Social Responsibility as earnestly as Coffee House has its rewards:
Human Resource, Teamwork and Involvement When a company is searching for prospective employees or boosting participation among your workers,
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Human Resource, Teamwork and Involvement When a company is searching for prospective employees or boosting participation among your workers,
Corporate Social Responsibility can assist to a great extent in all of these areas.
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Corporate Social Responsibility can assist to a great extent in all of these areas.
Understanding that they similarly work for a decent cause can be adequate to inspire motivation and enhanced work production between the company’s employees.
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Understanding that they similarly work for a decent cause can be adequate to inspire motivation and enhanced work production between the company’s employees.
Brand Differentiation A section of the Coffee House’ corporate social responsibility determinations are found on the internet where they outline objectives of capitalizing in the future of coffee farmers,
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Brand Differentiation A section of the Coffee House’ corporate social responsibility determinations are found on the internet where they outline objectives of capitalizing in the future of coffee farmers,
improving methods of reusing better and decreasing greenhouse gas discharges, and dedicating hours to social service.
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improving methods of reusing better and decreasing greenhouse gas discharges, and dedicating hours to social service.
It is exceedingly probable that these determinations have assisted Coffee House to be conspicuous from the others.
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It is exceedingly probable that these determinations have assisted Coffee House to be conspicuous from the others.
Several potential customers would want to purchase from or secure employment with an institution that does a lot to give back to the public.
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Several potential customers would want to purchase from or secure employment with an institution that does a lot to give back to the public.
Ethical Consumerism It is a given fact that all over the world, the population is increasing. Nonetheless, natural assets are deteriorating.
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Ethical Consumerism It is a given fact that all over the world, the population is increasing. Nonetheless, natural assets are deteriorating.
Shoppers are currently more conscious that what they purchase can also have negative repercussions for the humanity and the atmosphere,
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Shoppers are currently more conscious that what they purchase can also have negative repercussions for the humanity and the atmosphere,
and have consequently, become increasingly virtuous when making resolutions connected to their consumptions.
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and have consequently, become increasingly virtuous when making resolutions connected to their consumptions.
Social Awareness and Education Customers are cognisant, and so are more and more individuals. Certain customers have even initiated establishments just to concentrate on saving lessening natural assets.
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Social Awareness and Education Customers are cognisant, and so are more and more individuals. Certain customers have even initiated establishments just to concentrate on saving lessening natural assets.
These individuals can exert pressure on the company, nonetheless being communally and environmentally accountable can absolutely get the organization off the hanger.
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These individuals can exert pressure on the company, nonetheless being communally and environmentally accountable can absolutely get the organization off the hanger.
Advertising It will be occasional to observe a commercial about the company’s product, however with the corporate social responsibility determinations put up by Coffee House, its promotion requirements are habitually taken care of.
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Advertising It will be occasional to observe a commercial about the company’s product, however with the corporate social responsibility determinations put up by Coffee House, its promotion requirements are habitually taken care of.
Life Cycle Assessment of a Cup of Coffee The necessity for corporations to support environmental sustainability in their procedures, goods or services has posed considerable difficulties to environmental specialists, administrators and inventors.
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Life Cycle Assessment of a Cup of Coffee The necessity for corporations to support environmental sustainability in their procedures, goods or services has posed considerable difficulties to environmental specialists, administrators and inventors.
Manufacturing more economically maintainable and surroundings products necessitates the application of a rational structure for example wells tools, philosophies, purposes and descriptions.
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Manufacturing more economically maintainable and surroundings products necessitates the application of a rational structure for example wells tools, philosophies, purposes and descriptions.
An example of such outlines used to establish the environmental sustainability of a produce is Lifecycle Assessment (LCA),
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An example of such outlines used to establish the environmental sustainability of a produce is Lifecycle Assessment (LCA),
which is an approach applied to assess the environment effects associated with all the stages of merchandise’s life.
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which is an approach applied to assess the environment effects associated with all the stages of merchandise’s life.
That is to say, starting the phase of extracting raw material extraction, processing of resources, industrializing, circulation, application, overhauling and conserving the good,
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That is to say, starting the phase of extracting raw material extraction, processing of resources, industrializing, circulation, application, overhauling and conserving the good,
to its discarding. LCAs function in three methods: bringing together an inventory of the ecological discharges, resource inputs and appropriate energy;
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to its discarding. LCAs function in three methods: bringing together an inventory of the ecological discharges, resource inputs and appropriate energy;
measuring the potential effects connected to the acknowledged releases and resources inputs; and examining the consequences so as to arrive at a more educated resolution.
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measuring the potential effects connected to the acknowledged releases and resources inputs; and examining the consequences so as to arrive at a more educated resolution.
As stated by Pohl and Tolhurst (2010), LCAs contain four main stages, which comprise objectives and range, Lifecycle Inventory (LCI),
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As stated by Pohl and Tolhurst (2010), LCAs contain four main stages, which comprise objectives and range, Lifecycle Inventory (LCI),
lifecycle effect evaluation, and clarification. The objectives and range of the study founds the study framework and explains how the outcomes will be transferred.
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lifecycle effect evaluation, and clarification. The objectives and range of the study founds the study framework and explains how the outcomes will be transferred.
Project Description The research took into consideration the LCA characteristics of a 100 ml cup of coffee. In this respect,
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Project Description The research took into consideration the LCA characteristics of a 100 ml cup of coffee. In this respect,
the paper classifies all the resource streams from the natural setting, all the procedures and development stages for each of the constituents of coffee,
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the paper classifies all the resource streams from the natural setting, all the procedures and development stages for each of the constituents of coffee,
and all the feasible outputs during the course of the product’s comprehensive use to its discarding (Great Britain 2008).
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and all the feasible outputs during the course of the product’s comprehensive use to its discarding (Great Britain 2008).
Objectives The key purpose of this section is to commence a life cycle analysis for a tumbler of coffee.
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Objectives The key purpose of this section is to commence a life cycle analysis for a tumbler of coffee.
This task will involve recognizing the environmental influences related with all the procedures from cradle-to-crave concerning the production and consumption of a cup of coffee (100ml).
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This task will involve recognizing the environmental influences related with all the procedures from cradle-to-crave concerning the production and consumption of a cup of coffee (100ml).
The succeeding are the particular aims linked with the task:
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The succeeding are the particular aims linked with the task:
Scope of the Study The research takes into consideration the whole life cycle for a cup of coffee starting from the extraction of the necessary raw materials and handling and finally its consumption and discarding.
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Scope of the Study The research takes into consideration the whole life cycle for a cup of coffee starting from the extraction of the necessary raw materials and handling and finally its consumption and discarding.
The coffee model used for the task is Caffè Americano that is prepared by Coffee House. The emphasis of this assignment is on the ecological effects assessment; consequently, the life cycle cost analysis will be ignored.
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The coffee model used for the task is Caffè Americano that is prepared by Coffee House. The emphasis of this assignment is on the ecological effects assessment; consequently, the life cycle cost analysis will be ignored.
Life Cycle Analysis LCA encompasses framing aportfolio of the flows to and from the produce. Instances of inventory flows are raw resources,
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Life Cycle Analysis LCA encompasses framing aportfolio of the flows to and from the produce. Instances of inventory flows are raw resources,
water, acreage, releases to air and energy and so on.
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water, acreage, releases to air and energy and so on.
So as to advance a catalogue, there is the necessity to advance a stream model for the procedures in addition to the outputs and inputs.
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So as to advance a catalogue, there is the necessity to advance a stream model for the procedures in addition to the outputs and inputs.
It is vital to understand that this inventory is definite, in the understanding that ingredients were measured for every 100 ml of coffee,
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It is vital to understand that this inventory is definite, in the understanding that ingredients were measured for every 100 ml of coffee,
which is presumed to be corresponding to a single cup of coffee.
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which is presumed to be corresponding to a single cup of coffee.
Life cycle influence evaluation entails measuring the implication of the eventual environmental impacts conditional on the outcomes of the LCA stream (Great Britain 2008).
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Life cycle influence evaluation entails measuring the implication of the eventual environmental impacts conditional on the outcomes of the LCA stream (Great Britain 2008).
Elucidation of the outcomes involves computing, examining and assessing material from the life cycle inventory outcomes concerning the effect evaluation.
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Elucidation of the outcomes involves computing, examining and assessing material from the life cycle inventory outcomes concerning the effect evaluation.
Pohl and Tolhurst (2010) draw attention to the fact that the results acquired from impact evaluation and inventory study are shortened in the interpretation stage to offer an outline for decision making.
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Pohl and Tolhurst (2010) draw attention to the fact that the results acquired from impact evaluation and inventory study are shortened in the interpretation stage to offer an outline for decision making.
Explicitly, interpretation involves articulating suggestions and deductions for the evaluation by categorizing the matters depending on the outcomes of LCA and LCIA;
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Explicitly, interpretation involves articulating suggestions and deductions for the evaluation by categorizing the matters depending on the outcomes of LCA and LCIA;
assessing the study concerning the dependability checks, sensitivity and inclusiveness; and emphasizing the commendations, restrictions and deductions.
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assessing the study concerning the dependability checks, sensitivity and inclusiveness; and emphasizing the commendations, restrictions and deductions.
Growing and Treatment Preceding the drinking of coffee, it ought to be grown in the ranch and then preserved. Farming a coffee plant begins with a bean,
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Growing and Treatment Preceding the drinking of coffee, it ought to be grown in the ranch and then preserved. Farming a coffee plant begins with a bean,
in which the bean acquired from the coffee shrub is planted in earth.
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in which the bean acquired from the coffee shrub is planted in earth.
After approximately 4-8 weeks, the sprout starts to appear and is positioned in a place that is sheltered in order to prevent the sprouts from scorching due to direct sunshine.
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After approximately 4-8 weeks, the sprout starts to appear and is positioned in a place that is sheltered in order to prevent the sprouts from scorching due to direct sunshine.
When farming, the grower tends to the sprout for a period of about 9-18 months till the plants is 2 feet tall,
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When farming, the grower tends to the sprout for a period of about 9-18 months till the plants is 2 feet tall,
after which the short coffee sapling is now set for planting in a farm.
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after which the short coffee sapling is now set for planting in a farm.
The coffee sapling produces fruit throughout its initial 3 years. Nonetheless, it does not reach maturity up until after six years,
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The coffee sapling produces fruit throughout its initial 3 years. Nonetheless, it does not reach maturity up until after six years,
throughout which the tree is completely mature and is in optimum produce (National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy 2014).
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throughout which the tree is completely mature and is in optimum produce (National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy 2014).
A coffee sapling has a lifecycle of around 20-25 years of yielding coffee. Roasting Roasting helps to improve the flavour of the fresh coffee bean.
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A coffee sapling has a lifecycle of around 20-25 years of yielding coffee. Roasting Roasting helps to improve the flavour of the fresh coffee bean.
Throughout roasting, the coffee bean is exposed to chemical reactions targeted at improving its flavour and weakening the coffee.
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Throughout roasting, the coffee bean is exposed to chemical reactions targeted at improving its flavour and weakening the coffee.
The weakened coffee habitually stays raw for thirty days while the coffee bean continues to be stable for a much extended time.
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The weakened coffee habitually stays raw for thirty days while the coffee bean continues to be stable for a much extended time.
In this respect, coffee is frequently roasted in anticipation of being sold to the purchaser.
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In this respect, coffee is frequently roasted in anticipation of being sold to the purchaser.
Sweltering coffee begins with splitting the beans from the remains that are commonly combined with the coffee beans (National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy 2014).
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Sweltering coffee begins with splitting the beans from the remains that are commonly combined with the coffee beans (National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy 2014).
After categorization, coffee is weighed in relation to a batch size, after which it is placed in a roaster for approximately 3-30 minutes depending on the desired result.
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After categorization, coffee is weighed in relation to a batch size, after which it is placed in a roaster for approximately 3-30 minutes depending on the desired result.
The roasting heat ranges from around 188 to 282 degrees Celsius. The extent for roasting coffee has a considerable effect resulting to the taste for the coffee.
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The roasting heat ranges from around 188 to 282 degrees Celsius. The extent for roasting coffee has a considerable effect resulting to the taste for the coffee.
In this respect, the shorter the period for sweltering, the brighter colour of the coffee bean.
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In this respect, the shorter the period for sweltering, the brighter colour of the coffee bean.
Transportation Coffee is planted in numerous parts of the globe. A noteworthy quantity of carbon emissions and manufacturing costs are resulting from conveyance.
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Transportation Coffee is planted in numerous parts of the globe. A noteworthy quantity of carbon emissions and manufacturing costs are resulting from conveyance.
At the treating plants, coffee is frequently transported in between the procedures and fields. Once coffee is transported off the plant,
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At the treating plants, coffee is frequently transported in between the procedures and fields. Once coffee is transported off the plant,
carriage involves mostly lorries and ships, which use a considerable quantity of fuel (National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy 2014).
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carriage involves mostly lorries and ships, which use a considerable quantity of fuel (National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy 2014).
Brewing While preparing a cup of coffee,
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Brewing While preparing a cup of coffee,
the beans must be ground at the outset to realise the essential consistency succeeded by running scorching steaming water over the beans in a process called brewing.
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the beans must be ground at the outset to realise the essential consistency succeeded by running scorching steaming water over the beans in a process called brewing.
Brewing is completed with the key main of mining caffeine and coffee flavour from the heated coffee beans.
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Brewing is completed with the key main of mining caffeine and coffee flavour from the heated coffee beans.
It is vital to note that crushed coffee must not be simmered together with water as it leads to a bad flavour.
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It is vital to note that crushed coffee must not be simmered together with water as it leads to a bad flavour.
Brewing coffee can be completed using three approaches: soaking, sweltering and pressurization. Soaking coffee is prepared by a French press,
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Brewing coffee can be completed using three approaches: soaking, sweltering and pressurization. Soaking coffee is prepared by a French press, which is a tubular glass device having a metal nozzle fitting steadfastly in the glass container.
Coffee and sizzling water are combined together in the French press then they are steeped for period of approximately 5-10 minutes.
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Coffee and sizzling water are combined together in the French press then they are steeped for period of approximately 5-10 minutes.
Coffee beans can be detached from the coffee liquid by holding down the plunger.
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Coffee beans can be detached from the coffee liquid by holding down the plunger.
Steeping leads in a better coffee as the crushed coffee is in interaction with the boiling water for a comparatively longer period.
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Steeping leads in a better coffee as the crushed coffee is in interaction with the boiling water for a comparatively longer period.
The more the ground coffee remains in contact with the boiling water, the longer the removal of the coffee oils and flavour.
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The more the ground coffee remains in contact with the boiling water, the longer the removal of the coffee oils and flavour.
Boiling is the most ancient method used for developing coffee and typically involves combining crushed coffee and water in a container and then sweltering them.
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Boiling is the most ancient method used for developing coffee and typically involves combining crushed coffee and water in a container and then sweltering them.
Sweltering coffee for an extended time leads to an unpleasant taste. Pressurization takes advantage of pressurized water in addition gravity pressure.
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Sweltering coffee for an extended time leads to an unpleasant taste. Pressurization takes advantage of pressurized water in addition gravity pressure.
Brewing with gravity pressure yields drip coffee that is the most frequently used method for preparing coffee. With gravity pressurization,
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Brewing with gravity pressure yields drip coffee that is the most frequently used method for preparing coffee. With gravity pressurization,
a sieve is habitually packed with crushed coffee then hot water is gradually passed to steam through the sieve. The fluid leaking out of the filter is used up.
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a sieve is habitually packed with crushed coffee then hot water is gradually passed to steam through the sieve. The fluid leaking out of the filter is used up.
Pressurized water preparing involves the warming and pressurizing of water, which is then compelled to move through coffee beans.
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Pressurized water preparing involves the warming and pressurizing of water, which is then compelled to move through coffee beans.
This brewing technique uses additional ground coffee for every ounce of liquid coffee in comparison to other brewing approaches (Pohl & Tolhurst 2010).
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This brewing technique uses additional ground coffee for every ounce of liquid coffee in comparison to other brewing approaches (Pohl & Tolhurst 2010).
Coffee Grounds Following the brewing a single cup of coffee, the residual coffee grounds ought to be discarded as either excess water,
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Coffee Grounds Following the brewing a single cup of coffee, the residual coffee grounds ought to be discarded as either excess water,
solid leftover or reused. The remnants of coffee beans placed in garbage habitually end up in local solid waste plant.
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solid leftover or reused. The remnants of coffee beans placed in garbage habitually end up in local solid waste plant.
The residual coffee grounds that have been swept down the gutter are often conveyed as waste sewer via sewer channels reaching the waste water treatment facility,
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The residual coffee grounds that have been swept down the gutter are often conveyed as waste sewer via sewer channels reaching the waste water treatment facility,
after which the coffee beans are detached and treated in compliance with the conventions of a specific plant. Reused coffee grounds are either applied to increase soil potency or composted.
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after which the coffee beans are detached and treated in compliance with the conventions of a specific plant. Reused coffee grounds are either applied to increase soil potency or composted.
Composting the residual coffee grounds assists in elevating the nitrogen composition of a particular compost. Coffee beans compost comparatively fast due to the lesser size of the different coffee grounds.
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Composting the residual coffee grounds assists in elevating the nitrogen composition of a particular compost. Coffee beans compost comparatively fast due to the lesser size of the different coffee grounds.
When applied in nourishing the soil, coffee grounds discharge nitrogen, which upsurges the acidity of the earth (Dupont 2009).
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When applied in nourishing the soil, coffee grounds discharge nitrogen, which upsurges the acidity of the earth (Dupont 2009).
Life Cycle Analysis The study of life cycle for a single cup of coffee involves the following: Farming This stage involved the collection of literature information,
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Life Cycle Analysis The study of life cycle for a single cup of coffee involves the following: Farming This stage involved the collection of literature information,
particularly for pesticide application, fertilizer and energy. Insecticide and fertilizer manufacture statistics can be collected from commercially accessible databases while phosphorus and nitrogen productions were calculated using approximation methods.
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particularly for pesticide application, fertilizer and energy. Insecticide and fertilizer manufacture statistics can be collected from commercially accessible databases while phosphorus and nitrogen productions were calculated using approximation methods.
The mean production of coffee for every one hectare differs relying on the features and varieties of the land for farming and amount of ecological aspects such as the phase of the coffee plants.
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The mean production of coffee for every one hectare differs relying on the features and varieties of the land for farming and amount of ecological aspects such as the phase of the coffee plants.
As stated by Great Britain (2008), the estimated yield is roughly 2-6.5 quintals of treated coffee for every one hectare.
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As stated by Great Britain (2008), the estimated yield is roughly 2-6.5 quintals of treated coffee for every one hectare.
Treating of coffee beans can occur using two approaches, wet technique or dry technique.
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Treating of coffee beans can occur using two approaches, wet technique or dry technique.
Coffee plants can be withered using the sunlight or using apparatuses that consume comparatively high quantities of oil of roughly 0.11 l/kg.
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Coffee plants can be withered using the sunlight or using apparatuses that consume comparatively high quantities of oil of roughly 0.11 l/kg.
Processing Processing of coffee mostly involves brewing and wrapping. The unswerving energy and resource input during the processing stage comprise electricity and packing resources.
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Processing Processing of coffee mostly involves brewing and wrapping. The unswerving energy and resource input during the processing stage comprise electricity and packing resources.
The direct yields throughout coffee processing consist of air releases and discarded water.
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The direct yields throughout coffee processing consist of air releases and discarded water.
Transport The carriage activities occur at different points of coffee manufacture include:
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Transport The carriage activities occur at different points of coffee manufacture include:
• Wrapped coffee from the processing facilities to places of sale and suppliers • Dumping: trashes are produced at diverse phases of the coffee production comprising coffee chaff,
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• Wrapped coffee from the processing facilities to places of sale and suppliers • Dumping: trashes are produced at diverse phases of the coffee production comprising coffee chaff,
wrapping and coffee grounds. The research assumed that all these trashes were reused.
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wrapping and coffee grounds. The research assumed that all these trashes were reused.
The lifecycle evaluation was started to ascertain the carbon releases, water expenditure and energy usage concerning the production and application of the study.
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The lifecycle evaluation was started to ascertain the carbon releases, water expenditure and energy usage concerning the production and application of the study.
It is vital to note that processing involves treatment and cleaning of green coffee, crushing, roasting, preparing and filling and wrapping of coffee.
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It is vital to note that processing involves treatment and cleaning of green coffee, crushing, roasting, preparing and filling and wrapping of coffee.
Energy Required to Produce One Cup of Coffee So as to process and yield one cup of coffee, approximately 1.94 Mega Joules of energy is necessary.
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Energy Required to Produce One Cup of Coffee So as to process and yield one cup of coffee, approximately 1.94 Mega Joules of energy is necessary.
The majority of the energy is required towards the conclusion of the coffee phase during steeping. Nonetheless,
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The majority of the energy is required towards the conclusion of the coffee phase during steeping. Nonetheless,
a considerable quantity of energy is wasted since large processing plants can regain lost energy while consumers of the final product cannot regain the energy wasted in the course.
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a considerable quantity of energy is wasted since large processing plants can regain lost energy while consumers of the final product cannot regain the energy wasted in the course.
Water Use Water is among the leading inputs applied during the planting, readying and processing of coffee.
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Water Use Water is among the leading inputs applied during the planting, readying and processing of coffee.
The major water user throughout the whole process that consumes almost litres of water for a single cup of coffee of nearly 100 ml.
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The major water user throughout the whole process that consumes almost litres of water for a single cup of coffee of nearly 100 ml.
This transforms to almost 250 times that quantity of water used in one cup of coffee.
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This transforms to almost 250 times that quantity of water used in one cup of coffee.
Carbon Emissions The study evaluated carbon emissions constructing on the processing techniques, energy usage and transport and so on.
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Carbon Emissions The study evaluated carbon emissions constructing on the processing techniques, energy usage and transport and so on.
The amount of carbon emissions required for the separate procedures in the coffee cycle provides an aggregate of 115 pounds of carbon dioxide for a single cup of coffee.
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The amount of carbon emissions required for the separate procedures in the coffee cycle provides an aggregate of 115 pounds of carbon dioxide for a single cup of coffee.
Cleaning, brewing and farming are the most exceptional producers of carbon. Carbon releases as a consequence of farming are reasonably large owing to the diesel cultivating equipment.
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Cleaning, brewing and farming are the most exceptional producers of carbon. Carbon releases as a consequence of farming are reasonably large owing to the diesel cultivating equipment.
Correspondingly, carbon releases from cleaning and brewing are fairly large owing to the energy consumed by power facilities to boil water.
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Correspondingly, carbon releases from cleaning and brewing are fairly large owing to the energy consumed by power facilities to boil water.
Application of Tools and Techniques “Carbon monoxide alleged in teen demises” This front-page writing was from a state news organization,
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Application of Tools and Techniques “Carbon monoxide alleged in teen demises” This front-page writing was from a state news organization,
nonetheless all too frequently, people see comparable captions all over the United States because of defective heaters or vehicles left running in a locked garage.
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nonetheless all too frequently, people see comparable captions all over the United States because of defective heaters or vehicles left running in a locked garage.
Providentially, carbon monoxide is existing in much lesser amounts in the atmosphere. There is no debate that carbon monoxide is a contaminant with the possibility to injury all living creatures.
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Providentially, carbon monoxide is existing in much lesser amounts in the atmosphere. There is no debate that carbon monoxide is a contaminant with the possibility to injury all living creatures.
Contrasting to carbon dioxide, a gas that comprises an identical number of atoms as carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide is not acknowledged as a direct factor in climate change.
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Contrasting to carbon dioxide, a gas that comprises an identical number of atoms as carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide is not acknowledged as a direct factor in climate change.
It does, nonetheless, play a critical responsibility in this case.
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It does, nonetheless, play a critical responsibility in this case.
Carbon monoxide is unlike most contaminants. It can continue to exist in the atmosphere for roughly a month and can be conveyed long expanses.
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Carbon monoxide is unlike most contaminants. It can continue to exist in the atmosphere for roughly a month and can be conveyed long expanses.
Nevertheless, it is not consistently distributed all over the Earth. Even though carbon monoxide is only a feeble greenhouse emission,
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Nevertheless, it is not consistently distributed all over the Earth. Even though carbon monoxide is only a feeble greenhouse emission,
its impact on climate goes past its individual direct repercussions. Its occurrence influences concentrations of other greenhouse gases such as methane, tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide.
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its impact on climate goes past its individual direct repercussions. Its occurrence influences concentrations of other greenhouse gases such as methane, tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide.
The gas freely reacts with the hydroxyl radical (OH) creating a much sturdier, greenhouse gas called carbon dioxide. This, sequentially,
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The gas freely reacts with the hydroxyl radical (OH) creating a much sturdier, greenhouse gas called carbon dioxide. This, sequentially,
intensifies the volumes of methane, another durable greenhouse gas, since the most known way methane is eliminated from the atmosphere is after it reacts with OH.
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intensifies the volumes of methane, another durable greenhouse gas, since the most known way methane is eliminated from the atmosphere is after it reacts with OH.
Subsequently, the creation of carbon dioxide leaves less OH for methane to combine with, consequently snowballing methane’s presence.
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Subsequently, the creation of carbon dioxide leaves less OH for methane to combine with, consequently snowballing methane’s presence.
A NASA publication points out that carbon monoxide is accountable for a 13 reduction decline in hydroxyl incidence and by means of other reactions,
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A NASA publication points out that carbon monoxide is accountable for a 13 reduction decline in hydroxyl incidence and by means of other reactions,
a 9 percent drop in sulphate volumes. Sulphates are recognized for balancing some of the global warming resulting from greenhouse gases by replicating occurrence of solar emission back to space.
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a 9 percent drop in sulphate volumes. Sulphates are recognized for balancing some of the global warming resulting from greenhouse gases by replicating occurrence of solar emission back to space.
Similar to several pollutants, carbon monoxide has both human plus natural sources.
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Similar to several pollutants, carbon monoxide has both human plus natural sources.
Natural sources comprise volcanoes and forest burnings while anthropological sources (which account for more than half of all carbon monoxide generated) are mostly vehicle gases and slash and burn farming, but also comprise some manufacturing undertakings.
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Natural sources comprise volcanoes and forest burnings while anthropological sources (which account for more than half of all carbon monoxide generated) are mostly vehicle gases and slash and burn farming, but also comprise some manufacturing undertakings.
As vehicle emissions regulations have improved in starting previous years, carbon monoxide releases in western nations have diminished. Nevertheless,
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As vehicle emissions regulations have improved in starting previous years, carbon monoxide releases in western nations have diminished. Nevertheless,
a quick increase in development and in the total of vehicles in fast developing nations like China and India have led to augmented carbon monoxide emissions in those nations.
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a quick increase in development and in the total of vehicles in fast developing nations like China and India have led to augmented carbon monoxide emissions in those nations.
Biomass burning is the burning of vegetation. The burning comprises fires initiated by lightning and those initiated by people.
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Biomass burning is the burning of vegetation. The burning comprises fires initiated by lightning and those initiated by people.
The latter comprises fires for the aim of land clearing to expand agricultural expanses or to discard the debris from the preceding year’s harvests.
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The latter comprises fires for the aim of land clearing to expand agricultural expanses or to discard the debris from the preceding year’s harvests.
NASA cables are capable of tracing the enormous trails of carbon monoxide occasioning from these activities. For instance, in 2007,
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NASA cables are capable of tracing the enormous trails of carbon monoxide occasioning from these activities. For instance, in 2007,
the smoke from human-made fires obscured large expanses of Southeast Asia.
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the smoke from human-made fires obscured large expanses of Southeast Asia.
Environment Minimization Strategies Recycling & Reducing Waste Coffee House has plans of recycling all materials that need to be recovered in the stores and control waste collection including usable cups by 25 percent in 2015.
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Environment Minimization Strategies Recycling & Reducing Waste Coffee House has plans of recycling all materials that need to be recovered in the stores and control waste collection including usable cups by 25 percent in 2015.
Approximately 70% of Coffee House stores in the whole world can reclaim at least one kind of waste where has commercial recycling services around Coffee House stores.
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Approximately 70% of Coffee House stores in the whole world can reclaim at least one kind of waste where has commercial recycling services around Coffee House stores.
Moreover, Coffee House offers 10% discount to customers who bring in their commuter mugs that they want to decrease environmental impact of the cup.
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Moreover, Coffee House offers 10% discount to customers who bring in their commuter mugs that they want to decrease environmental impact of the cup.
By 2009, reusable cups had been served over 4.4 million more than 2008.
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By 2009, reusable cups had been served over 4.4 million more than 2008.
Energy Conservation Coffee House has emphasized two issues that are preserving and developing energy efficiently, which it has impacted to climate change.
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Energy Conservation Coffee House has emphasized two issues that are preserving and developing energy efficiently, which it has impacted to climate change.
In the past, Coffee House has tried to reduce its energy by cooperating with other electronics companies, which develops LED lighting to replace halogen lighting.
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In the past, Coffee House has tried to reduce its energy by cooperating with other electronics companies, which develops LED lighting to replace halogen lighting.
The LED lighting was installed 1,000 stores in U.S.A where could reduce energy only 1.7% from 2008 to 2009 (Werther and Chandler 2011).
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The LED lighting was installed 1,000 stores in U.S.A where could reduce energy only 1.7% from 2008 to 2009 (Werther and Chandler 2011).
However,
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However,
the goal of Coffee House is to reduce the energy consumption by 25 percent of use within 2015 and is also still looking forward to other innovative choices to decrease the power (Keinert 2008).
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the goal of Coffee House is to reduce the energy consumption by 25 percent of use within 2015 and is also still looking forward to other innovative choices to decrease the power (Keinert 2008).
Water Water is atremendously vital natural reserve in the establishment’s business because it needs the water to produce coffee and tea refreshment.
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Water Water is atremendously vital natural reserve in the establishment’s business because it needs the water to produce coffee and tea refreshment.
In current years, Coffee House has initiated this project by mounting the manually worked hand-meter faucet in all branches in the world.
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In current years, Coffee House has initiated this project by mounting the manually worked hand-meter faucet in all branches in the world.
Coffee House can save the use of water by about 150 gallons per store per day. Moreover,
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Coffee House can save the use of water by about 150 gallons per store per day. Moreover,
Coffee House continues to use technology to save water by using such technology as the dishwasher that uses less than a single gallon of water per cycle (Keinert 2008).
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Coffee House continues to use technology to save water by using such technology as the dishwasher that uses less than a single gallon of water per cycle (Keinert 2008).
Another instance is the case in which the company has trained partners (employees) to keep the coil in ice machines clean in order to reduce heat from machines to make ice melt.
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Another instance is the case in which the company has trained partners (employees) to keep the coil in ice machines clean in order to reduce heat from machines to make ice melt.
Between 2008 and 2009 Coffee House was able to decrease consumption of water by 4.1% .In 2015,
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Between 2008 and 2009 Coffee House was able to decrease consumption of water by 4.1% .In 2015,
the goal of Coffee House is to reduce the water consumption by 25 percent in coffee shops (Urip 2010).
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the goal of Coffee House is to reduce the water consumption by 25 percent in coffee shops (Urip 2010).
Climate Coffee House trusts that high-quality products come from real agriculture systems. Furthermore, it’s also cares about climate change.
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Climate Coffee House trusts that high-quality products come from real agriculture systems. Furthermore, it’s also cares about climate change.
The company tries to reduce the environmental impacts by developing initiative solutions. For instance,
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The company tries to reduce the environmental impacts by developing initiative solutions. For instance,
Coffee House has incentive programs relating to coffee farmers to reduce carbon emissions from burning and clearing forests in several nations around the globe;
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Coffee House has incentive programs relating to coffee farmers to reduce carbon emissions from burning and clearing forests in several nations around the globe;
which are sensitive environments in the pilot programs. Moreover, Coffee House has collaborated with Earth watch Institute which renews rainfall,
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which are sensitive environments in the pilot programs. Moreover, Coffee House has collaborated with Earth watch Institute which renews rainfall,
water resource map and indicating biodiversity in order to share knowledge with coffee farmers (Keinert 2008).
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water resource map and indicating biodiversity in order to share knowledge with coffee farmers (Keinert 2008).
Conclusion Coffee Place has been the most prosperous coffee chain in the last few years using its growth approaches to drive out much of its rivals.
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Conclusion Coffee Place has been the most prosperous coffee chain in the last few years using its growth approaches to drive out much of its rivals.
Coffee House has focused on forming a solid network of outlets all over the world while also attempting to penetrate new places all around the globe.
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Coffee House has focused on forming a solid network of outlets all over the world while also attempting to penetrate new places all around the globe.
The company currently endeavours to be the most prominent recognized retailer of coffee for an exceptional price to increase the profitability of Coffee Place.
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The company currently endeavours to be the most prominent recognized retailer of coffee for an exceptional price to increase the profitability of Coffee Place.
The planet‘s main importer of coffee is the United States: Kraft, Nestl, Procter & Gamble,
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The planet‘s main importer of coffee is the United States: Kraft, Nestl, Procter & Gamble,
and Sara Lee are the main roaster corporations that are responsible for approximately 50 percent of all yearly production of the product.
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and Sara Lee are the main roaster corporations that are responsible for approximately 50 percent of all yearly production of the product.
Customers’ requirement for coffee is insensitive to price changes such that when coffee prices increase, consumers do not decrease their coffee use.
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Customers’ requirement for coffee is insensitive to price changes such that when coffee prices increase, consumers do not decrease their coffee use.
In terms of CSR, Coffee House has good governance, ethical conduct, and social responsibility is the core to their way of running business.
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http://globalassets.starbucks.com/assets/ae2f32c159e64a3e96fafd5a9b37ef25.pdf 65%
In terms of CSR, Coffee House has good governance, ethical conduct, and social responsibility is the core to their way of running business.
Coffee House is driven to create and increase shareholder value. Coffee House also focuses on maintaining the relationship between stakeholders and their company.
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http://globalassets.starbucks.com/assets/4dd6216d0fd0400f8689eceba0497e04.pdf 63%
Coffee House is driven to create and increase shareholder value. Coffee House also focuses on maintaining the relationship between stakeholders and their company.
Coffee House focuses on protecting the environment and urges others to the same in order to make a great business for mankind.
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Coffee House focuses on protecting the environment and urges others to the same in order to make a great business for mankind.
They have initiated many schemes to encourage the surroundings. The corporation believes that actual business has to include and support communities also.
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They have initiated many schemes to encourage the surroundings. The corporation believes that actual business has to include and support communities also.
The aims of Coffee House has aided its associates (employees), and clienteles facilitate communities over 1 million all over the globe in 2015.
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The aims of Coffee House has aided its associates (employees), and clienteles facilitate communities over 1 million all over the globe in 2015.
The purpose of Ethos water fund is serving the children who cannot accessuncontaminated water by supporting 5 cents for every single bottle of Ethos Water.
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The purpose of Ethos water fund is serving the children who cannot accessuncontaminated water by supporting 5 cents for every single bottle of Ethos Water.
So far, Ethos water fund has presented 6 million US dollars to assist 420,000 people all over the world to obtain the clean water.
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So far, Ethos water fund has presented 6 million US dollars to assist 420,000 people all over the world to obtain the clean water.
The company conductsbusiness in many phases by engaging the environment, all societies and obeying the laws of each country. Also, it endeavours to deliver quality of merchandises and service, as well as respectable relationships with both contractors and customers.
All of these are long-term strategies that make Coffee House successful. When a company is searching for prospective employees or boosting participation among your workers,
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All of these are long-term strategies that make Coffee House successful. When a company is searching for prospective employees or boosting participation among your workers,
Corporate Social Responsibility can assist to a great extent in all of these areas.
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Corporate Social Responsibility can assist to a great extent in all of these areas.
A section of the Coffee House’ corporate social responsibility determinations are found on the internet where they outline objectives of capitalizing in the future of coffee farmers,
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A section of the Coffee House’ corporate social responsibility determinations are found on the internet where they outline objectives of capitalizing in the future of coffee farmers,
improving methods of reusing better and decreasing greenhouse gas discharges, and dedicating hours to social service.
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improving methods of reusing better and decreasing greenhouse gas discharges, and dedicating hours to social service.
LCA involves framing an inventory of the streams to and from the produce. Instances of inventory streams are raw resources, water, land, emissions to air and energy and so on. So as to advance a catalogue, there is the necessity to advance a stream model for the procedures in addition to the outputs and inputs.
Elucidation of the outcomes involves computing, examining and assessing material from the life cycle inventory outcomes concerning the effect evaluation. The study evaluated carbon emissions constructing on the processing techniques, energy usage and transport and so on.
The amount of carbon emissions required for the separate procedures in the coffee cycle provides an aggregate of 115 pounds of carbon dioxide for a single cup of coffee.
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The amount of carbon emissions required for the separate procedures in the coffee cycle provides an aggregate of 115 pounds of carbon dioxide for a single cup of coffee. Cleaning, brewing and farming are the most exceptional producers of carbon.
Carbon releases as a consequence of farming are reasonably large owing to the diesel cultivating equipment. Correspondingly, carbon releases from cleaning and brewing are fairly large owing to the energy consumed by power facilities to boil water.

The church in America is under crisis homework

Introduction The church in America is under crisis. The book Church Planting is the best solution to the crisis. About 80 percent of the churches that sprung up in America in the 21st century have declined or plateau. Jokingly, if the church in America today entered into an emergency room, doctors would put it on life support. David Olson, who is the director of American Research Project, notes that in 2007, only 18 percent of Americans attended church on a particular weekend. This figure means that, a whopping 82 percent did not attend any church, and as the population continues to surge, the church continues to lose ground.
A point worth noting and should not be missed is that; the number of Americans who profess no religious affiliation at all has almost doubled since 1990 gradually moving from 8 to 15 percent (Malphurs,
2011). Initially, most of them were located in North West but shifted to North East. In 2008, North East emerged as their stronghold.
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2011). Initially, most of them were located in North West but shifted to North East. In 2008, North East emerged as their stronghold. This shift in religious affiliation is shocking. The North West part was never religious and did not hold any religious congregations compared to the North East,
that was more religiously organized and was the founder and epitome of religion in America. Simply put, American most basic cultural contours have changed.
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that was more religiously organized and was the founder and epitome of religion in America. Simply put, American most basic cultural contours have changed.
The Judeo-Christian agreement of the last millennium caused the shift to post-Christian, post-modern, post-Western which threatens American culture at its centre.
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The Judeo-Christian agreement of the last millennium caused the shift to post-Christian, post-modern, post-Western which threatens American culture at its centre.
A new narrative that is post-Christian is animating large parts of American society.
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A new narrative that is post-Christian is animating large parts of American society.
The crisis in America represents early symptoms for a declining church. Vital question is; what can be done to save the church?
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The crisis in America represents early symptoms for a declining church. Vital question is; what can be done to save the church?
Is there a solution to the crisis of declining Christianity and in general The Church in America?
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Is there a solution to the crisis of declining Christianity and in general The Church in America?
Positively, the answer is yes. There are two solutions to the problem; first, churches that have declined or plateaued should pursue,
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Positively, the answer is yes. There are two solutions to the problem; first, churches that have declined or plateaued should pursue,
revitalize and renew their congregations. Many have veered off from what Jesus Christ called to do.
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revitalize and renew their congregations. Many have veered off from what Jesus Christ called to do.
If the Church is to make a positive impact on society, it has only the option of going back to Christ and doing what He called it to do. Secondly, churches need to plant more churches.
http://www.expastors.com/why-do-so-many-pastors-leave-the-ministry-the-facts-will-shock-you/ 65%
http://thomrainer.com/2013/01/21/the-main-reason-people-leave-a-church/ 61%
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If the Church is to make a positive impact on society, it has only the option of going back to Christ and doing what He called it to do. Secondly, churches need to plant more churches.
Churches and denominations in the 20th century saw no need to plant many churches. They ignored the ministry departments of their churches.
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Churches and denominations in the 20th century saw no need to plant many churches. They ignored the ministry departments of their churches.
There is a problem with the church of the 21st century and survival of the church is dependent on how churches and denominations are willing to plant the church.
http://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1867&context=doctoral 93%
http://thomrainer.com/2013/04/24/autopsy-of-a-deceased-church-11-things-i-learned/ 67%
http://holysoup.com/2014/11/12/the-rise-of-the-dones/ 73%
http://www.dts.edu/download/dmin/dissertations/DTS-DMin-McDaniel,Mike-Case-Studies-of-Selected-Missional-Churches.pdf 67%
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http://www.paganchristianity.org/answers.php 67%
http://marc5solas.com/2013/02/08/top-10-reasons-our-kids-leave-church/ 60%
http://www.ibiblio.org/freebiblecommentary/pdf/EN/VOL06.pdf 60%
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There is a problem with the church of the 21st century and survival of the church is dependent on how churches and denominations are willing to plant the church.
Why Church Planting is the better of the Two From the two solutions, church planting is by far the best solution.
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Why Church Planting is the better of the Two From the two solutions, church planting is by far the best solution.
Wagner Peter a missiologist jokingly explained why he favoured church planting to revitalization by saying that the difference between the two is;
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Wagner Peter a missiologist jokingly explained why he favoured church planting to revitalization by saying that the difference between the two is;
trying to have babies and trying to raise the dead. Trying to raise a dead church is difficult. It’s hard to introduce changes to the struggling already established churches (Malphurs,
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trying to have babies and trying to raise the dead. Trying to raise a dead church is difficult. It’s hard to introduce changes to the struggling already established churches (Malphurs,
2011). Many complain and strongly oppose changes. On the other hand,
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2011). Many complain and strongly oppose changes. On the other hand,
church plants acknowledge problems in the established churches and are willing to embrace beneficial changes that will make a positive impact for the sake of Christ in communities.
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church plants acknowledge problems in the established churches and are willing to embrace beneficial changes that will make a positive impact for the sake of Christ in communities.
Newly planted churches also tend to evangelize better than older and established ones. Churches less than fifteen years old win about five people per year for every 100 members.
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Newly planted churches also tend to evangelize better than older and established ones. Churches less than fifteen years old win about five people per year for every 100 members.
Once a church is over fifteen years old, and the figure drops to three for every 100.
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Once a church is over fifteen years old, and the figure drops to three for every 100.
Age of Church Members won to Christ yearly Number of Members Below 3 years 10 100 3-15 years 5 100 Above 15 years 3 100 Another reason extended for church planting against revival is that,
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Age of Church Members won to Christ yearly Number of Members Below 3 years 10 100 3-15 years 5 100 Above 15 years 3 100 Another reason extended for church planting against revival is that,
planters gain leadership credibility from their followers faster than those assume these roles in established churches.
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planters gain leadership credibility from their followers faster than those assume these roles in established churches.
Many established church leaders are unwilling to handle over the full mantle to completely new pastors. Before new leaders can lead,
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Many established church leaders are unwilling to handle over the full mantle to completely new pastors. Before new leaders can lead,
they must prove their credibility to the congregation and win their trust (Malphurs, 2011). This process takes even eight years and even after which,
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they must prove their credibility to the congregation and win their trust (Malphurs, 2011). This process takes even eight years and even after which,
many churches will never allow the new pastor to lead. However, church planting offers pastors a chance to assume leadership from the start,
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many churches will never allow the new pastor to lead. However, church planting offers pastors a chance to assume leadership from the start,
new members join and from then henceforth, they will give him the necessary credibility and trust to lead.
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new members join and from then henceforth, they will give him the necessary credibility and trust to lead.
Church planting also eliminates the problem of acquired baggage. Baggage in this instance refers to mistakes made by pastors during their tenure.
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Church planting also eliminates the problem of acquired baggage. Baggage in this instance refers to mistakes made by pastors during their tenure.
Like every human, pastors make mistakes. Global culture has seen many pastors fail for various reasons, and members are hard on them.
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Like every human, pastors make mistakes. Global culture has seen many pastors fail for various reasons, and members are hard on them.
Leaders who ascend to leadership from an established church carry the baggage of their predecessors’ mistakes on their shoulders. They inherit issues from previous leaderships.
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Leaders who ascend to leadership from an established church carry the baggage of their predecessors’ mistakes on their shoulders. They inherit issues from previous leaderships.
Church planting allows a pastor to make a mistake and acquire their baggage without adding on to the weight of a former pastor’s baggage.
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Church planting allows a pastor to make a mistake and acquire their baggage without adding on to the weight of a former pastor’s baggage.
Foundational Assumptions The book is informed by seven assumptions which also impacts on the readers assumptions of the book. 1.
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Foundational Assumptions The book is informed by seven assumptions which also impacts on the readers assumptions of the book. 1.
It is important how we interpret the Bible It is important to base all a church planter is doing on the scripture as it is the source of all truths for all Christians.
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It is important how we interpret the Bible It is important to base all a church planter is doing on the scripture as it is the source of all truths for all Christians.
It is crucial to consult with the Bible on ecclesiology (theology of the church) and know what it says about missions,
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It is crucial to consult with the Bible on ecclesiology (theology of the church) and know what it says about missions,
visions, and values. Pastors should also know what the Bible says about church practices so that they base their ministries on the scriptures (Malphurs, 2011).
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visions, and values. Pastors should also know what the Bible says about church practices so that they base their ministries on the scriptures (Malphurs, 2011).
Church ministers and pastors should understand hermeneutics which are methods of interpreting the Bible. They are divided into descriptive and prescriptive hermeneutic.
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Church ministers and pastors should understand hermeneutics which are methods of interpreting the Bible. They are divided into descriptive and prescriptive hermeneutic.
Some passages describe what happened at particular times in the Bible, the descriptions may not however be prescriptive for today’s church.
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Some passages describe what happened at particular times in the Bible, the descriptions may not however be prescriptive for today’s church.
There are those things that the Bible commands the church to do and those that it leaves open and issues no command about them.
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There are those things that the Bible commands the church to do and those that it leaves open and issues no command about them.
2. Importance of Numerical Growth Christ wants his church to grow numerically and reach huge numbers and if it’s not,
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2. Importance of Numerical Growth Christ wants his church to grow numerically and reach huge numbers and if it’s not,
then something is amiss. If a church is spiritually healthy, then growth in numbers should be obvious just like the Church of Jerusalem.
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then something is amiss. If a church is spiritually healthy, then growth in numbers should be obvious just like the Church of Jerusalem.
Exceptions, however, maybe churches located in areas dominated by other religions, for instance, a church in the Middle East.
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Exceptions, however, maybe churches located in areas dominated by other religions, for instance, a church in the Middle East.
It is evident that numbers are important and indicators that a church is blessed, growing and reaching many people for the sake of Christ.
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It is evident that numbers are important and indicators that a church is blessed, growing and reaching many people for the sake of Christ.
3. Primary Role of the Pastor The church congregation holds some assumptions about what their pastors should be doing without evaluating whether these expectations are biblical or not.
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3. Primary Role of the Pastor The church congregation holds some assumptions about what their pastors should be doing without evaluating whether these expectations are biblical or not.
The primary roles of pastors include; creating leadership, directing visions,
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The primary roles of pastors include; creating leadership, directing visions,
praying and ensuring the church is fully in pursuit of God and the Great Commission of Jesus and to teach the true Word of God as enshrined in the Bible.
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praying and ensuring the church is fully in pursuit of God and the Great Commission of Jesus and to teach the true Word of God as enshrined in the Bible.
Pastors are, therefore, allowed to delegate roles to the not so busy members of the congregation as they concentrate on prayer and the word.
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Pastors are, therefore, allowed to delegate roles to the not so busy members of the congregation as they concentrate on prayer and the word.
4. Applying Business Principles to the Church The assumption that, business reasoning is part of the world and has no place in the church needs to be exhumed.
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4. Applying Business Principles to the Church The assumption that, business reasoning is part of the world and has no place in the church needs to be exhumed.
If business principles work, then they should be used for the good of the church. All truth is God’s truth,
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If business principles work, then they should be used for the good of the church. All truth is God’s truth,
and the entire Bible is true but, all truth is not always found in the Bible. The Bible contains special revelations but general and natural revelations are found in history,
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and the entire Bible is true but, all truth is not always found in the Bible. The Bible contains special revelations but general and natural revelations are found in history,
nature and other sources that are all from God. Church planters should look for leadership truths in the Bible and include business as a possible source of truth.
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nature and other sources that are all from God. Church planters should look for leadership truths in the Bible and include business as a possible source of truth.
5. No Exact Biblical Model for Doing Church Many church members assume that the traditional church practices are the Biblical ways.
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5. No Exact Biblical Model for Doing Church Many church members assume that the traditional church practices are the Biblical ways.
Little in the Bible tells how churches in the first century did things, and God does not give a prescribed model of how to do things in the church.
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Little in the Bible tells how churches in the first century did things, and God does not give a prescribed model of how to do things in the church.
He has given man freedom to develop models that suit church location and population.
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He has given man freedom to develop models that suit church location and population.
6. Importance of Innovation The church functions are timeless and do not change. Worship, evangelism, service, fellowship and biblical teachings amongst others remain unchanged with time.
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6. Importance of Innovation The church functions are timeless and do not change. Worship, evangelism, service, fellowship and biblical teachings amongst others remain unchanged with time.
The church’s forms will, however, change with time. Worship can be done through many different ways and include different instruments.
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The church’s forms will, however, change with time. Worship can be done through many different ways and include different instruments.
Churches prefer to use King James while other will prefer Good News Bibles. What matters is that functions are not lost.
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Churches prefer to use King James while other will prefer Good News Bibles. What matters is that functions are not lost.
7. Stages of Church-planting- these stages are important for any upcoming new church that wishes to gain root and remain strong even t=in the future.
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7. Stages of Church-planting- these stages are important for any upcoming new church that wishes to gain root and remain strong even t=in the future.
Church planting is a process and failure to implement any step of the process leads to decline or failure.
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Church planting is a process and failure to implement any step of the process leads to decline or failure.
Importance to the Future of the Church The main reason the book was written is; starting new churches in America is vital for the future of the church.
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Importance to the Future of the Church The main reason the book was written is; starting new churches in America is vital for the future of the church.
If churches are not planted, there will be no churches. Like any other organizations, churches exist in cycles. They are plated,
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If churches are not planted, there will be no churches. Like any other organizations, churches exist in cycles. They are plated,
started or born and undergo growth due to the emphasis on outreach during their early stages. However, along the way,
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started or born and undergo growth due to the emphasis on outreach during their early stages. However, along the way,
many churches lose course and problems arise (Malphurs, 2011). Many of the churches shift from their core outreach mission and adopt an in-reach-mentality in efforts to find solutions to problems.
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many churches lose course and problems arise (Malphurs, 2011). Many of the churches shift from their core outreach mission and adopt an in-reach-mentality in efforts to find solutions to problems.
Their growth stunts and if they ignore or fail to solve the problem, they decline and if the decline too is ignored, the church dies.
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Their growth stunts and if they ignore or fail to solve the problem, they decline and if the decline too is ignored, the church dies.
Churches, just like other organizations are not perpetual. Churches are made up of people who will one day die and ultimately all churches will die.
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Churches, just like other organizations are not perpetual. Churches are made up of people who will one day die and ultimately all churches will die.
It is, therefore, to keep in mind that the church is facing extinction dangers.
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It is, therefore, to keep in mind that the church is facing extinction dangers.
Cycle of a Church After birth, the church gradually grows, reaches an optimal point and plateaus. If revival measures are not applied at this point,
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Cycle of a Church After birth, the church gradually grows, reaches an optimal point and plateaus. If revival measures are not applied at this point,
the church again gradually declines and dies. Good news is that, instead of reviving dead churches, new ones can be started.
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the church again gradually declines and dies. Good news is that, instead of reviving dead churches, new ones can be started.
Due to the efforts and vibrancy of the churches of the first century, the church of Christ is alive to date. It has survived through planting.
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Due to the efforts and vibrancy of the churches of the first century, the church of Christ is alive to date. It has survived through planting.
What is Church Planting? Aubrey Malphurs defines church planting as a tiring but exciting work of faith, a planned process of commissioning,
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What is Church Planting? Aubrey Malphurs defines church planting as a tiring but exciting work of faith, a planned process of commissioning,
growing and developing local churches on the bases of Christ’s promise of building his church in obedience to his Father the Great commissioner.
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growing and developing local churches on the bases of Christ’s promise of building his church in obedience to his Father the Great commissioner.
The definition can be broken down into several components to ease understanding;
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The definition can be broken down into several components to ease understanding;
Exhaust Many are surprised to hear that planting is exhausting. Like other church ministries such as revitalization, parachurch, and interim ministries,
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Exhaust Many are surprised to hear that planting is exhausting. Like other church ministries such as revitalization, parachurch, and interim ministries,
planting is exhausting. It is a misconception that starting a church is easy. Many imagine that planting a church is all about teaching the Bible attract and love new members. Church planting, however, is an energy draining process.
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planting is exhausting. It is a misconception that starting a church is easy. Many imagine that planting a church is all about teaching the Bible attract and love new members. Church planting, however, is an energy draining process.
It involves long hours, sometimes longer than those ministers of established churches put. Much is needed and done when starting a church from scratch.
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It involves long hours, sometimes longer than those ministers of established churches put. Much is needed and done when starting a church from scratch.
Time and resources are never enough to do all what there is to do. More than one trip and phone call need to be made (Malphurs,
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Time and resources are never enough to do all what there is to do. More than one trip and phone call need to be made (Malphurs,
2011). Disturbing is the fact that, people of faith discourage instead of encouraging church planters.
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2011). Disturbing is the fact that, people of faith discourage instead of encouraging church planters.
Other churches may not be happy to see a new church coming up nearby and will say rude and mean things to demoralize the planter.
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Other churches may not be happy to see a new church coming up nearby and will say rude and mean things to demoralize the planter.
Others attack the planter for planting a church that is contemporary instead of a traditional one that follows particular norms.
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Others attack the planter for planting a church that is contemporary instead of a traditional one that follows particular norms.
All these are draining and a take toll on an individual worse than physical activity.
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All these are draining and a take toll on an individual worse than physical activity.
Exciting Starting a church creates excitement and counters the feeling of exhaustion. If there is no excitement, then something is not right.
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Exciting Starting a church creates excitement and counters the feeling of exhaustion. If there is no excitement, then something is not right.
If people are not excited about a church planting project, then it is time to stop and re-evaluate it. It could mean that the timing is wrong,
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If people are not excited about a church planting project, then it is time to stop and re-evaluate it. It could mean that the timing is wrong,
and people are not ready. This is the problem with established churches. Along the way, they lost the excitement of planting the church killing the future.
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and people are not ready. This is the problem with established churches. Along the way, they lost the excitement of planting the church killing the future.
Various reasons make church planting exciting; first, church planters are pioneers. They are entrepreneurs of the work of Christ which helps them know why God created them.
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Various reasons make church planting exciting; first, church planters are pioneers. They are entrepreneurs of the work of Christ which helps them know why God created them.
There is excitement in fulfilling what God intended one to, and anticipating Him to help one accomplish more in a ministry.
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There is excitement in fulfilling what God intended one to, and anticipating Him to help one accomplish more in a ministry.
A Venture of Faith The Bible clearly states that anything of spiritual significance is only achieved through faith. Without faith,
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A Venture of Faith The Bible clearly states that anything of spiritual significance is only achieved through faith. Without faith,
it is impossible to please God. Church planters are people of strong and authentic faith whose aim is much more than just pleasing God.
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it is impossible to please God. Church planters are people of strong and authentic faith whose aim is much more than just pleasing God.
It is upon them to trust that the Lord who called them to plant the church will make their paths straight,
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It is upon them to trust that the Lord who called them to plant the church will make their paths straight,
make directions and clear them when the right time comes.
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make directions and clear them when the right time comes.
Planned Process Starting a church is a dynamically planned mission. It has a beginning but no end. Ideally,
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Planned Process Starting a church is a dynamically planned mission. It has a beginning but no end. Ideally,
starting a church is coming up with a ministry that was not in existence before with the goal that it continues for as long as God wishes it to and is pleased with its work.
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starting a church is coming up with a ministry that was not in existence before with the goal that it continues for as long as God wishes it to and is pleased with its work.
The process can be viewed in two ways; the organizational cycle whereby it begins and grows but eventually plateaus and dies.
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The process can be viewed in two ways; the organizational cycle whereby it begins and grows but eventually plateaus and dies.
The church is intended to start and grow with no end in sight.
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The church is intended to start and grow with no end in sight.
God will one day close the church’s door, but when beginning, the end is not in mind. Focus is always on the beginning,
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God will one day close the church’s door, but when beginning, the end is not in mind. Focus is always on the beginning,
not its death. Secondly, a church goes through five stages; conception, birth, growth, and reproduction.
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not its death. Secondly, a church goes through five stages; conception, birth, growth, and reproduction.
The process is in five stages whereby, conception is the idea to plant a church and is usually the first,
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The process is in five stages whereby, conception is the idea to plant a church and is usually the first,
and continuing through with the other stages with the aim of reproducing more churches (Malphurs, 2011).
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and continuing through with the other stages with the aim of reproducing more churches (Malphurs, 2011).
The Stages of planting a church 1. Conception Stage-the idea of building a church is realized, and events that are foundational to the future of the church take place.
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The Stages of planting a church 1. Conception Stage-the idea of building a church is realized, and events that are foundational to the future of the church take place.
The lead pastor or individuals assesses if they are called to be church planters, recruitment of leadership team, raising planting funds,
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The lead pastor or individuals assesses if they are called to be church planters, recruitment of leadership team, raising planting funds,
creation the church’s values, mission and visions, creation of a prayer team to bathe the new church in prayers to enable it stand and adoption of the statement of doctrines.
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creation the church’s values, mission and visions, creation of a prayer team to bathe the new church in prayers to enable it stand and adoption of the statement of doctrines.
2. Development Stage- after the idea, is conceived, the next stage is to develop it by recruiting the pioneer group to launch and become the church’s first congregation.
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2. Development Stage- after the idea, is conceived, the next stage is to develop it by recruiting the pioneer group to launch and become the church’s first congregation.
The team recruits and helps the new group of members grow and mature spiritually and begin to do what is in line with the new church’s affairs.
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The team recruits and helps the new group of members grow and mature spiritually and begin to do what is in line with the new church’s affairs.
3. Birth Stage-the church is launched at this stage. The stage assesses the size of the church and picks a name for it,
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3. Birth Stage-the church is launched at this stage. The stage assesses the size of the church and picks a name for it,
they also locate a place to meet, publicize the meeting and when all systems are in check, launch the new church.
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they also locate a place to meet, publicize the meeting and when all systems are in check, launch the new church.
4. Growth-after launching, it is vital for the church to grow. Numerical and spiritual growths are the most important. To help grow,
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4. Growth-after launching, it is vital for the church to grow. Numerical and spiritual growths are the most important. To help grow,
the church should establish a lead pastor, a vision, and right staff and mobilize its congregation.
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the church should establish a lead pastor, a vision, and right staff and mobilize its congregation.
5. Reproduction Stage-the main goal of starting a church is to grow and continue the church-planting mission. After the church has realized growth both spiritually and numerically,
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5. Reproduction Stage-the main goal of starting a church is to grow and continue the church-planting mission. After the church has realized growth both spiritually and numerically,
it is imperative that it reproduces and start a church-planting movement. It should begin by praying for the mission,
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it is imperative that it reproduces and start a church-planting movement. It should begin by praying for the mission,
remind people the mission regularly and select a leadership team to oversee God’s work of planting another church.
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remind people the mission regularly and select a leadership team to oversee God’s work of planting another church.
They should also raise the necessary resources more so financial to meet the new church’s financial demands.
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They should also raise the necessary resources more so financial to meet the new church’s financial demands.
Starting and Growing a Church The main objective of church planting is not just to start but to see it grow and reproduce many others.
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Starting and Growing a Church The main objective of church planting is not just to start but to see it grow and reproduce many others.
Churches grow in various ways; Biological growth- People in the church have babies,
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Churches grow in various ways; Biological growth- People in the church have babies,
and it is a good signal that the church has young families whose babies are the future of the church.
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and it is a good signal that the church has young families whose babies are the future of the church.
Transfer Growth- People transfer from one church to the other which can be good or bad.
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Transfer Growth- People transfer from one church to the other which can be good or bad.
A person can leave a church due to their high expectations or because the church took disciplinary measures against them and asked them to leave.
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A person can leave a church due to their high expectations or because the church took disciplinary measures against them and asked them to leave.
Some leave because the church is poisonous and is hurting their faith.
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Some leave because the church is poisonous and is hurting their faith.
Evangelism Growth-This growth occurs when the church is running evangelical ministries and reaching non-believers with Christ’s word. They get saved and follow Christ.
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Evangelism Growth-This growth occurs when the church is running evangelical ministries and reaching non-believers with Christ’s word. They get saved and follow Christ.
It is heartbreaking that very few churches are evangelistic and is the main reason why church in America is in a crisis.
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It is heartbreaking that very few churches are evangelistic and is the main reason why church in America is in a crisis.
Spiritual growth-It is Christ’s wish his church grows not only numerically but also spiritually. According to his Great Commission, the church should grow spiritually as believers mature gradually.
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Spiritual growth-It is Christ’s wish his church grows not only numerically but also spiritually. According to his Great Commission, the church should grow spiritually as believers mature gradually.
In the book of Matthew 16:18, Jesus promises to build his church. The essence of this promise is that Jesus is in the building process,
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In the book of Matthew 16:18, Jesus promises to build his church. The essence of this promise is that Jesus is in the building process,
and church builders are not in it alone. The builder of the church is Christ, not man. He has, however,
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and church builders are not in it alone. The builder of the church is Christ, not man. He has, however,
given man the privilege to be part of the process (Malphurs, 2011).
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given man the privilege to be part of the process (Malphurs, 2011).
The church gets in trouble when members refer to the church they attend as “my church “whereas it is the church of Christ.
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The church gets in trouble when members refer to the church they attend as “my church “whereas it is the church of Christ.
One would then question why church, especially in America is collapsing yet Christ is building and growing them.
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One would then question why church, especially in America is collapsing yet Christ is building and growing them.
The answer can only be that these churches that are struggling to survive may not be churches of Christ. When this occurs,
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The answer can only be that these churches that are struggling to survive may not be churches of Christ. When this occurs, the church should pose and evaluate what they are all about.
Implementing Jesus’ Great Commission The Great Commission is Jesus’ idea of a church. Church planters are nor to start any kind of church. Churches should be those that take seriously the word of Christ and obey Jesus’ command to make disciples which begin with evangelism and goes on to build faith in saints with the ultimate purpose of attaining spiritual maturity. The greatest reason that churches are failing today is failure to pursue the Great Commissioning.
The Church The Bible describes several kinds of churches like the universal church of believers and the local church of believers from a particular geographical region. A local church is a requisite gathering of believers who profess their faith in Christ who are under leadership and are organized to fulfil Christ’s mission by carrying out and accomplishing several functions for the Glory of God.
Church Planters These are people involved in church planting. They have devoted their lives to the exhausting but exciting venture of faith that follows the planned process to start and grow local churches pivoting their work on Jesus’ promise to build a church and following his Great Commission (Malphurs, 2011). Planters incorporate many different people serving at different categories in the church planting process. People who God directs to pick the lead role in church planting, the team that the lead person recruits and leaders of established churches who use their churches to train and sponsor church planters are all in general referred to as The Planters.
The best way for a church planter to start a church is for an established, gifted and talented church minister to mentor them for several years. The planter gains immensely valuable experience, the established church offers salary and is usually allowed to recruit his team of planters who together they will launch a new church out of the established church. People that teach church planting in seminaries and colleges and also train church starters are also part of the Church Planters title (Malphurs, 2011).

The Concept of Li The traditional Chinese history is marked with the practices of various Confucius concepts of Li

Q1 The Concept of Li The traditional Chinese history is marked with the practices of various Confucius concepts of Li widely regarded as “ritual”.it means proper conduct or propriety. From the onset, Li denoted court rites performed to sustain societal order of cosmic and social nature.
In written form Li is an element of rite Li which is an ideograph of ritual vessel and left radical vessel shi which means alter and thus points to things of religious nature. The various definitions of li can be termed a second century context as the acts or steps undertaken and so we serve spiritual beings and so obtain happiness. At its inception, it was meant to perform religious rite to appease the supernatural beings. The rites include the three rituals texts include are: the Zhou li which were commonly known as the rites of Zhou, the Yi li, which are the observances and rites and the Li Ji, known as records of rites.
According to Confucian revival and the Neo-Confucianism[pp, 94-95,564-567], the rites included the religious-political rituals, ancestral rituals, secular rituals, military rituals and good luck rituals, for example this concept is widely celebrated both out the early corpus of Confucian literature and codified in the Confucian classic known as the record of rites.
Religious political rituals encompassed the worship of heavenly bodies, the worship of the earth. The worship of Heavenly bodies can be traced to the Zhou dynasty. It took place in the southern border. This sacrifice was made to the supreme ruler of the universe or the heavens, the supreme of the ancient Chinese which was held on the solstice period. The Chinese people during this time revered the Shagdi and mostly worshipped the heavenly bodies. The earthly leader was regarded as an embodiment of the supreme as documented in the imperial order of Han synthesis [pp305-307]. Secondly with regard to the earth worship the God of the earth was said to be the mother earth during the Han Dynasty as she was purported to confer good blessings to the people.
Ancestral rituals involved the ancestral temple worship and the ancient ancestral masters. In such temples human sacrifice had been offered before the abolishment by the Han Dynasty. The emperor is noted as having seven ancestral temples and the officials had three ancestral temples. This worship was a product of the ancient close linkage of the present to the past. The temple edifice was erected to the house of the diseased. For instance Zhu Yuanzhang became the first to establish ancestral temples representing. The second under this category encompassed the worship of ancient sages and masters. For instance,
Secular rituals, these kinds of rituals encompassed military and meeting rituals for instance when a formal visit paid by a subordinate to his superior observance of obeisance was key. Additionally when two officers meet they bow simultaneously with clasped hands. When a duke and a feudal King meet, they were under obligation to pay obeisance twice. The subordinate individual stands to the west of the superior individual and pay obeisance first and the superior person makes a reply salute. The second in this category as in regard to the military which involved waging of punitive expeditions and voyages, hunting and erecting camps structures and collecting taxes in line with death and the state in imperial China, pp [150-161].
The birth rituals encompassed the rites related to birth starting with the praying from the ushering in of a child when a woman from the time when a woman has not yet become pregnant to the time when the baby has reached the age of one full year.
The feast of the banquet denotes the banquet ritual which was usually held in the Tai temple, in this case the meet of the ship, pig and ox were prepared to serve to the guests and it emphasised on the reciprocity of etiquette and not just mere dining. Thereafter it was followed by the worshiping ceremony in honour of the leader or the emperor. It had a significant influence in the dining culture of the Chinese till now. This dining aspect has served to strengthen the dining spirit that many visitors to China witness through the entire county. Other banquet includes the festivals.
There are many changes that were realised during this time included but not limited to the following circumstance. Various Chinese dynasties set different rules and regulations and did their part to abolish some of the practices such as human sacrifice the worship of the mountains and many others.
For instance, at the close of the Qing Dynasty, the worship of the emperor came to an end. After the installation of the Han Dynasty the worship of the God of the land was subsequently abolished in the face of criticism by the Confucius, its associated humans sacrifice was subsequently.
Rituals practices were shared by both Buddhists and the Confucians, but it was denoted as having transcended mere politeness central to Confucian human centred religiousness evidenced in making of a Classical Culture [pp 304-306].
Over time it was considered a derivative of natural order as it retained a cosmic role in its enchantment of human experiences. Finally from the above discussion is it absolutely true that the concept li, underwent transformation overtime all of which proved to be very significant to the entire Chinese people especially to the Confucians. For instance other rites have been and still are practiced while others were abolished, in the present day capping rites are no longer practiced while the removal of tooth, wearing of skirts and the dying of tooth are still practiced.
Question 2 The Most Significant Chinese Dynasty The Chinese dynasties widely reflect on the long standing history of the people of China and their stability over time. It is worthy to note that each of the dynasty which came with the fall or the defeat of the preceding dynasty.
The subsidence or the purported fall of any former dynasties can be attributed to several influences both from within the administration and external influences. From within, we can argue based on the nature, strength and the charisma in leadership.
A study of all of the Chinese dynasties is indicative of their overwhelming support and interest in supporting the Chinese nation. Issues of class, rulership, wealth and religion, to which people definitely subscribed differently has been documented and are vividly seen as responsible for the far fetching human differences in the realms of politics, religion and economic matters.
This essay explores the most significant dynasty in the Chinese History during the earlier centuries; however each of the dynasties had an influential impact on the future of the Chinese history by then.
Therefore distinguishing differences seem to emanate from the nature of the challenges at that time and the nature of responses. Moreover, how the dynasty rulers held on the long-standing Confucius principles or reinstituted their mode of operation.
Unique Origin The Ming Dynasty presents very unique history that enables it to emerge as the most significant dynasty firstly is with regard to its origin, the early dynasty prior to the establishment of the Ming dynasty, the Mongols ruled in the preceding dynasty. However, several factors such as discrimination of the Chinese by Mongol led government, the declining agriculture and inflation are purported to have initiated the revolt against the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty with then its subsequent retreat to the Mongol steppes. Yuang Zha took Hongwu as his reign title and rule with his family members. It supported the creation of self-sustaining agricultural communities, confiscation of great land estates, fragmenting and renting out such lands. Hongwu had little trust for the Confucians; however the subsequent emperor recognised their importance which was once neglected by the Yuan Dynasty.
Exploration Achievement The Ming dynasty under the leadership of Zhu Di made significant contribution to the face of the Chinese people and the world government. Sea exploration brought significant benefits inform of tributes, The Voyages is regarded as one of the most extra ordinary ventures which traversed the Indian Ocean and the south East Archipelago.
Under the auspices of Yongle, Zheng He lead a faring task force was a triumph of the commercial lobbies seeking to stimulate conventional trade.
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Under the auspices of Yongle, Zheng He lead a faring task force was a triumph of the commercial lobbies seeking to stimulate conventional trade. These were the important moments that set china apart and probably build on its history to be a future significant world leader in ship building, trade and inters o the economic power4s.
Technological Achievements Restoration of the Grand Canal and completion of the repair of the Great Wall of China is a significant achievement in the era of Ming Dynasty. A closer study of the activities in the trade shows that a lot of of trade items and wide range of equipment were manufactured during this era where silk looms and porcelain were made .with regard to agriculture technological advancement led to improved agricultural production. In terms of military equipment, The Huochong Gun, a projection firearm was developed while in the medical fields, a medical book named compendium of material Medica advanced knowledge in this field of medicine.
Agricultural Revolution The Chinese leadership upon establishment by Hongwu supported the poor people and this lead to an overwhelming response by the people to practise Agriculture (pp) for instance the cruel emperors showed and overwhelming support to the poor people. Most of the confiscated land were redistributed to the, for instance, to avert the possibility purchase of the idle land by the landlord, he ordered for their fragmentation while all the waste land were distributed to the young men who has reached manhood. While all who made use of such lands were excluded from the remittance of tax. This is significant contribution and support to the people and it truly resulted in the independence of most of these farmers.
The time emperor had come from a peasant family and did his best to integrate the elites with the people. For instance, He sent a group of peasants to develop the irrigation systems and subsequently led to improvement in the number of ponds and dykes and improved ecosystems and use of the natural resources as in Mountains and Water [pp38-39]. Under this dynasty two systems of tax remittance were established that ensured responsibility of the rich while protecting poor farms against exploitation.
The Ming Code This was recognised as one of the greatest accomplishments in this era. Under the leadership and supervision of the emperor, the Ming code was drawn .The Ta Ming Lu project was wholly completed. He instructed ministers and other serving leader informed the on the intended nature of the code, intelligibility and having no loopholes for manipulation by sub-officials. The code presents a history as a great improvement by the dynasty with reference to treatment of slaves. The slaves were no longer killed by any free citizen or treated like animals. It brought sanction to any person who killed the slaves and therefore accorded protection to the slaves and free citizens.
Building of the Great Wall This was a very unique wall to the history of china. The humiliating defeated at the battle of Tumu and later raids by the Mongols under their new leader. The strategy to contain the northern horsemen was to build the great wall. By 1368 the Ming had started the construction of this technically advanced fortification.
Despite the new expense created, the wall followed the new Ming empire borders.
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Despite the new expense created, the wall followed the new Ming empire borders. Moreover it is evident that the Dynasty acknowledged the control which the Mongolians had staged in the south of Huang He. This is very significant in the history and the struggles of China within its people and against external aggression.
Significant Advancement in the Arts Various elements such as items, physical, features and landmarks can be traced back to the Ming Dynasty. Artistic works in the fields of Philosophy and literature are the important human development elements and evidence of the significance of the Ming dynasty, For instance the Forbidden City is great architectural achievement which still stands today. The China’s famous Blue and white porcelain originated in this era. It is also in this era that china became famous for its handicraft, printing and silk cotton weaving. Majority of the famous works of literature works which documented the journeys to the west. It is significant to note these formed very important historical record which stand today.
In the foregoing it is truly undeniable that Ming Dynasty made the most significant contribution to the society. This essay has explored their outstanding attempts to change the living standard of the Chinese people. The e structures of governance and the control of the external aggressions that threatened the stability of china and its people over time. The dynasty also gave significant rules to the people and made most of the attempts to eliminate the historical record of Zheng He.
Q3 “Zheng He: Ambassador of Peace, or Conqueror?” Most of the governance structures of the world had laid down rules and regulations which defined the relationship among the people within the country’s defined boundaries and with the external states.
An examination of the Chinese dynasties depicts gradual Chinese development trends overtime under the stewardship of the various dynasties. It is true that the dynasty’s style of leadership differed significantly and that rules changed of overtime depicting the character of the non-static laws.
The overall changes in the laws were subject to the intentional directive of the emperor. Diplomacy in the dynasties under which Zheng He served were mean for peace and in these cases peace meant being very friendly and loyal to the chines emperor, this essay critically explores the elements o this paces aspect to elicit and in-depth understanding.
Most of the diplomatic missions by Zheng He were naval voyages, which traversed various states and carried out expedition with instances of wars in the waters, contrary to the concept of peace.
Assessment of the 7 voyages and the missions of Zheng He reveals a lot of connection of the voyages with the emperors interests. Expedition as required by the emperor of Ming is far still the most unmatched voyage in the world History.
Purpose of the Voyages The Ming dynasty under which Zheng He served as a diplomat had the intentions to demonstrate its power by initiating the campaigns to defeat its domestic and foreign threats. The Yongle emperor aggressively led major campaigns against the Mongolian tribes in the West and the North. He equally wanted the externally aggressive non-citizens both at the borders and abroad to perceive of the Chinas power and therefore a strong countries as it was in the earlier dynasties. He wanted to use soldiers to influence how other countries perceived of china for instance the voyages of 62 ships expressed the China’s naval power to the countries in the east West and in African coastal kingdoms like Somalia ware he paid visit.
They intention to threaten and dominate by Zhu Di entrusted his missions and intentions with Zhen He, with counteracting intention or making allies or exerting dominance. This was expressed in the way in which upon his seven voyages.
He returned to China With over 30 diplomats and leaders from other countries who went to pay homage to the emperor of China. In another phase of influence for instance, the Yongle Emperor gave orders to the ship builders and yard workers to build larger ships than were necessary for the Voyages dubbed “Treasure Ships”, this was to expersee the Ming Power to the world and boast about Chinas Resources and Importance’s.
The larger ships were accompanied by hundreds of smaller ships carrying water, troops, Horses or cannons, gifts and other general valuables. The valuables and all the ships and troops were meant to impress the leaders of other far flung civilizations in accordance with Bary and Bloom [ pp,203-210].
Explore the Cultures In his mission Zhen he carefully studied most of the culture especially in the Indians and the religious practices of the people he interacted with. The next reason for the purpose of the voyages was to expand China’s marine power; an undertaking that had been on the progress for 300 years. The china had more developed naval technologies Commercial gains since there had been China’s demand for commodities of great importance. In the Zheng He Voyages, merchants also accompanied them bring with the valuables for exchange purposes such as silk, porcelain to trade for foreign luxuries. They in return obtained from the afar fields merchants goods such as tropical woods, jewels and spices.
lastly, the most important mission as far as the voyage was concerned was to earn respect and honour to the emperor Yongle .The objective of the voyages was to display the glory and the Might of the Ming Chinese Dynasty and to collect tribute from the kingdom s beyond the seas.
Further advance of critical analysis of these expeditions, emperor’s acts and other abroad missions indicate that Zeng He exhibits the characteristics associated with peace and conqueror. The entire motive of Zhen He was to exert dominance in line with Yongle desires to elevate China against the powers of its perceived enemies. It is no possible to the voyages of Zheng He can be attributed as voyages of discovery and in all its dimensions possess both the desirable and the undesirable elements in the process carrying out its duty.
Lavish spending; the emperors in bid to achieve all his motives used greater amount of money and resources in the treasury to build ships for the seven voyages, troop maintenances and to carry the valuables to the states and to reward leads in the far land countries bordered by the sea.
Fateful decisions; the above mentions voyage was regarded as one of the fateful decisions by the emperor apart from decades of defeat in war with Annam by the Northern Vietnam. This was most due to exorbitant demand for timber to build his palace in line the philosophy of influence by the established structures. The demand for ample space to accommodate his palaces and the expectation of visitor from diverse cultures and abroad made him to overspend the money in the treasury when he moved the capital to Beijing to from Nanjing.
In addition the voyages during the time of Zheng He lead to an increase in trade between China and other countries as result of the diplomatic establishments.
As an admiral diplomat, he greatly helped to improve the Chinese maritime and commercial influence throughout the regions bordering the Indian Oceans showed off the wealth and power of the Ming dynasty and influence the maritime trade and ports in Asia .The accomplishment of Zheng He is an achievement for all mankind and is not limited to the Chinese only, depicted by the size of his Voyage ships.
Conclusion Finally the concept, “Zheng He: Ambassador of Peace, or Conqueror?” has elicited a lot of contradiction. This has been justified by the nature of Zheng He, expressing an outright fearless attitude.
Diplomacy entails an agreement between parties to a conflict with similar or rival interests. In all of His seven voyages, wars were common with him and he took with him naval forces to counter any impending dangers of the seas during the expeditions.
The claims that these development centuries were not truly times of peace, by seeking diplomacy, it ought to have begun right at home by dealing with the aggressive Mongols and the Northern Nomads.
Zheng He, the purported prince of peace had an home background of injustices and killings in the Chinese rulership. Peace is an outstanding quality in every aspect of human background but the refutation of the voyages and the final elimination of the voyages by the subsequent dynasties indicated absences of peace.
Lastly, he made skewed support of people by favouring majorly the Muslims in various stop points. His peace voyages are more importantly viewed as intimidation of the foreign leaders who had to pay homage to his emperor.

Introduction Blinding is a process which refers to the complete sealing off of a pipe, tower, exchanger

Introduction Blinding is a process which refers to the complete sealing off of a pipe, tower, exchanger, vessel, duct or any other refinery equipment by use of a metal plate which is properly designed so that it is scrammed onto the end of a flanged vessel or pipe or even inserted between two flanges.
This is a well-established safety and maintenance process in the gas, oil, onshore and refining industries. It is important to note that the plate covers the bore completely and it has the capacity to endure the maximum that the pipe has without any leak past the plate.
Through this process it is a possibility to attain positive flow shut off or rather absolute closure (Atherton, Gil & American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 2008). During the blinding process a very important document referred to as a blind list always prove to be of value.
A blind list is a record listing, which is written, indicating where minds must or have been slot in to specific pieces of equipment which are isolated. Superior to it is the blind book which can be said to be a master book for recording blinding.
The contents of the master record book includes description of the blind, the size of the blind, the operator who was in charge of the blinding process, date of removal and the specific specialist that was in charge for the removal, the location of the blind and also the size of the blind.
The importance of such records cannot be ignored as they help in the review and keeping progress. Blinds can be casually categorized into two, those that are temporary installed and the permanently installed blinds.
The latter refers to blinds that are meant to remain fixed and thus indefinitely in service. The temporarily installed blinds are not to remain in service indefinitely as there removal is known and at a near date.
Thesis Statement There are a number of uses of spectacle blind in a refinery located in offshore terminals. It is important to know the maintenance and installation procedures used during management of activities of maintaining the blinds. For instance, it is required that pressure surges are kept in a tight control and a changeover with a relief valve is carries out such as through installation of disc control in a less expensive way it ensures the correct strategy is used that ensures the needs of end users of these blinds are achieved. This ensures their maintenance and prevention of effects such as explosion ort destruction of blinds. It provides the main activities involved during construction of blinds and maintenance activities that are important so that cases of accidents are reduced.
Discussion Before the blind list is approved, operations and maintenance supervision will be responsible for identifying the entire blind sites as well as the energy source isolation.
i. Blinding equipment There is a number of equipment that facilitates the blinding process. An example of such equipment is a drum whose blinding is achieved by means of a pipe that is connected to the sewer system and can be blinded or subjected to physical disconnection before the issue of entry permits.
During the opening process for the drums for hot work services, all lines are expected to be blinded and valve venting should be closed (Cheremisinoff, 2000). Equipment used during blinding process is the furnace or a boiler.
This is where blinding is done so that the integrity of the tubes is not affected. The routine blinding activities can include repairing the refractory blocks, conducting ultrasonic tests, fuel gas tests and firebox steam.
When there is firing of a burner and corresponding fire outage in the refractory system,
the tubes are subjected to ultrasonic tests for a specified period of time and the fuel gas lines are subjected to blinding.
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the tubes are subjected to ultrasonic tests for a specified period of time and the fuel gas lines are subjected to blinding.
During the process of operations in the firebox containing common stack with another furnace that is active,
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During the process of operations in the firebox containing common stack with another furnace that is active,
it is required that blinding should be provided in the form of isolation of the flue gas that emanates from the tubes (Kletz, 2009).
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it is required that blinding should be provided in the form of isolation of the flue gas that emanates from the tubes (Kletz, 2009).
Equipment that is subjected to blinding is the exchangers where the main blinding activities include ensuring the lines to the tubes or sides of the shells are blinded.
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Equipment that is subjected to blinding is the exchangers where the main blinding activities include ensuring the lines to the tubes or sides of the shells are blinded.
It may be necessary to blind an exchanger on either side if there exists a possibility of leakage that can result into leakage of hydrocarbons (Lark, Nwaoha & Bahadori, 2013).
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It may be necessary to blind an exchanger on either side if there exists a possibility of leakage that can result into leakage of hydrocarbons (Lark, Nwaoha & Bahadori, 2013).
Furthermore, it is required that in a case where there is the need to perform a hot work on a line,
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Furthermore, it is required that in a case where there is the need to perform a hot work on a line, blinding needs to be performed on the equipment that connects it such as a pump or a furnace so that it is not accessible to the hydrocarbons.
When a line contains harmful chemicals, it shall be prepared before being subjected to blinding. In addition, it is required that tanks should be blinded.
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When a line contains harmful chemicals, it shall be prepared before being subjected to blinding. In addition, it is required that tanks should be blinded.
This is where when there are openings in tanks for entry, a connection of steam lines that connects directly to the tank needs to be blinded in addition,
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This is where when there are openings in tanks for entry, a connection of steam lines that connects directly to the tank needs to be blinded in addition,
it is required that foam lines connecting tank roofs and other lines of drainage also need to be blinded.
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it is required that foam lines connecting tank roofs and other lines of drainage also need to be blinded.
Equipment that needs to be blinded is the pumps in the case where there is the need to perform a hot work and when there is a leakage in the block valves or when there’re is lack of attendance to the functional location of the pump within a period of eight hours (Nemerow, 2007). In addition,
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Equipment that needs to be blinded is the pumps in the case where there is the need to perform a hot work and when there is a leakage in the block valves or when there’re is lack of attendance to the functional location of the pump within a period of eight hours (Nemerow, 2007). In addition,
ii. Precautions during binding process There are certain precautions that need to be complied with during binding process. For instance,
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ii. Precautions during binding process There are certain precautions that need to be complied with during binding process. For instance,
before the commencement of activities,
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before the commencement of activities,
possible sources of gas flare should be identified followed by identification of communications systems that enables communication with employees in the field and any area that can result into leakage of gas into the flare (O’Brien, 2008).
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possible sources of gas flare should be identified followed by identification of communications systems that enables communication with employees in the field and any area that can result into leakage of gas into the flare (O’Brien, 2008).
This will be followed by adjustment of the operations of the units that connects the flare lines so that possible problems are identified and production rates adjusted so that losses are not inflicted on the workers.
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This will be followed by adjustment of the operations of the units that connects the flare lines so that possible problems are identified and production rates adjusted so that losses are not inflicted on the workers.
This should be followed by formation of a work platform that allows proper accessibility.
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This should be followed by formation of a work platform that allows proper accessibility.
Operation functions should be focused on monitoring the level of progress of the activities so that communications with the affected units is ensured and maintained.
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Operation functions should be focused on monitoring the level of progress of the activities so that communications with the affected units is ensured and maintained.
While this work will be in progress, a fire watch based on a fire horse line will be used during this testing period (Purchas & Sutherland,
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While this work will be in progress, a fire watch based on a fire horse line will be used during this testing period (Purchas & Sutherland, 2002). During the installation process, craftsmen involved in installation of the blinds will be provided with protective clothing so that they are protected from flash fires.
In case of any deviations, a discussion must take place between the operations manager and the safety supervisor so that the right strategy is used during the installation stage. iii.
During blinding process, there are certain steps that are followed. This ensures blinding process is carried out effectively and the aim of performing efficient functions of pipelines is achieved.
The first step during blinding process is the blind list selection process and its identification.
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The first step during blinding process is the blind list selection process and its identification.
Before a blind can be approved, maintenance supervisor will be involved in the activity of identifying any blind and sources of energy isolations (Randall, 2008). This will be followed by furnishing the maintenance process by means of an approved blind list and a description of blinding locations.
The maintenance supervisor then issues the maintenance plan for the system is maintained. The next stage of blinding process is the blind selection stage.
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The maintenance supervisor then issues the maintenance plan for the system is maintained. The next stage of blinding process is the blind selection stage. This is where the selected flange is in accordance with the piping system into which the installation of the blind takes place.
The supervisor the selects the right thickness based on the required pressure and temperature to be sustained by the blind (Sanders, 2005). It is recommended that blinds that have the capacity to sustain temperatures above 700oC should be selected.
The next phase during blinding process is the installation stage. This is where the person in charge of blind installation gets the permit to do so following conducting energy source control in each refinery for each permit process.
This will be followed by commencement of installation of the blinds. The blinding process must account for the location o flanges where the nearest flanges are selected during blinding process based on the safety measures to be observed and the nature of the equipment that needs to be isolated (Tarleton & Wakeman, 2006).
When installation of blinds is complete, contractor craftsman will conduct tests on the master blind for all blinds created. Each blind will be labeled with a red label after it has been installed by the professional in charge of installation.
The control room will be tagged with yellow tags in a corresponding manner. When these activities are completed by the craftsmen, there will be a visual investigation of each blind so that installation can be verified (Thomas, 2010).
This will be followed by initialization of the master blind list corresponding to each blind that has been created. The last stage during blind formation is blind removal stage. Upon completing the tasks that require blinds, the supervisor in charge of blind installation obtains the permit that allows him to perform the tasks of removing the blinds.
This is followed by the installation of new gaskets, followed by removal of blinds after which is followed by removal of the initial master blind list (Lark, Nwaoha & Bahadori, 2013). Another activity in this stage will be visual inspection of each blind so that they can be removed and initial blind when completed.
When the crafts men have completed the operations and blinds have been removed and a master blind has been initiated so that a list that verifies visual inspection is created, operations such as checking if all the blinds have been removed will follow and blind identifiers will be used to identify blind locations.
When it has been verified that removal has been implemented in all blinds and blind identifiers have been removed, the operations supervisor performs the tasks of initializing the master blind and declares it complete.
Conclusion Oil refineries are exposed to a number of harmful conditions that can cause destruction of the piping and delivery systems. The instance of leakage of gases can be of great impact to the affected company and its employees. This has result into the need to sensitize oil manufacturers of the need for binding operations. In this study, an insight has been provided where the main focus has been the stages involved in the design of gassing system so that any individual or organization can participate in the activity.
It is also found that coordination between professionals in the mining sector is of great importance, as a result it ensures an agreement is reached with regards to the maintenance procedures that are more important for oil company operators so that they do not incur high loses as a result of leakage of gasses and liquids from the containers.

The paper reviews in a nutshell the development of the WTO by providing a brief history of its inception and the challenges it faced in the run up to 1994

Abstract The paper reviews in a nutshell the development of the WTO by providing a brief history of its inception and the challenges it faced in the run up to 1994. The paper discusses in details the Dispute Settlement Body and its role in the solving of international trade disputes. It gives the nature of the system and the principles that govern its operations. Further, the paper provides the process of the dispute settlement and overviews the challenges, criticism and the problems that the system has been contending with since it came into operation. The paper also discusses the successes and achievements of the WTO dispute system and the response of the member countries with regard to the WTO achievements. In conclusion, it gives the need for the WTO dispute system to adopt a transparent approach in reducing the negative attitude that other members hold against the system.
History of the WTO The foundational basis of the World Trade Organization is a long and a consistent one. However, its developmental stages were not free from legal and moral obstacles that the countries that were involved often raised. The need for a world trade body became heightened immediately after World War II. The aftermath of the World War II provided an ample environment for the international trade cooperation and liberalization (Becroft 2012 p. 47). The emergence of America as the strongest force in regard to economic power enabled it to push for a global system that can ensure multilateralism. Further, there was a general consensus that matters of international trade and the limited market base fuelled the war. The allied powers, therefore, committed to ensuring that financial instability and trade block rivalry are avoided.
The initial vision of the allied powers was reflected in 1944 Bretton Woods Conference that aimed to create three institutions for the sole purpose of controlling finance, development and trade. To this end, the conference proposed the establishment of IMF, the World Bank, and the ITO (International Trade Organization).
The ITO was aimed at enhancing free and fair trade among nations. The ITO however did not come into the establishment as the IMF and the World Bank (Narlikar, Daunton, & Stern 2012 p.
85). The main reason for the stalled establishment of the ITO was grievance raised by the United States.
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85). The main reason for the stalled establishment of the ITO was grievance raised by the United States. The United States believed that the inception of the ITO would take away the sovereignty of the United States Constitution (Narlikar, Daunton, & Stern 2012 p.
95). The countries decided to use the GATT agreement that had been signed by twenty-three contracting parties in 1947.
The backing down of the US was partially fuelled by a disagreement between it and Britain.
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The backing down of the US was partially fuelled by a disagreement between it and Britain.
There was a clash on how to reconcile the existing region arrangement with the envisioned body. However, the parties agreed that the body should concentrate on the lowering tariffs and disciplining discriminatory practices among member countries.
GATT negations formed the basis upon which WTO was formed in 1995.
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GATT negations formed the basis upon which WTO was formed in 1995. In the Uruguay round that began in 1986 through to 1994 member nations finally agreed to establish the body. WTO is one of the youngest international bodies. It effectively succeeded the GATT. Although WTO came to existence in 1995, the rules and policies for trade liberalization have been into existence from a long time (Narlikar, Daunton, & Stern 2012 p. 131).
The paper discusses the benefits of WTO in promoting global trade system. It also provides a concise synopsis of the benefits that the organization has brought to the trading system.
In view of the institutions, the paper offers the nature of the institutions created under the WTO law.
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In view of the institutions, the paper offers the nature of the institutions created under the WTO law. It emphasizes on the judicial system of the WTO by analyzing the efficacy of the dispute resolution system under the WTO. The paper also offers recommendations about steps that should be undertaken to ensure innovative development of the justice system.
Benefits of WTO The WTO is the only global body that is concerned with international law on trade between countries with the basic mission of ensuring a smooth flow of trade.
Through this mission, WTO offers to the world population a guaranteed result of quality products.
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Through this mission, WTO offers to the world population a guaranteed result of quality products.
The consumers are presented with a variety of products to choose from thus making the price of good more favourable.
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The consumers are presented with a variety of products to choose from thus making the price of good more favourable.
There is certainty into the continuous supply of goods, component, and raw materials. Further, it creates certainty of the availability of the external market.
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There is certainty into the continuous supply of goods, component, and raw materials. Further, it creates certainty of the availability of the external market.
The engagements through trade assure of international peace and economic prosperity since WTO creates a system that every country relies on each other. Functions of WTO The Preface of the Marrakesh Agreement sets out the in general terms, the mandate of WTO as agreed during the Uruguay round.
It borrows most objectives from the GATT. The driving objective of the WTO is thus raising the standard of living through ensuring full employment,
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It borrows most objectives from the GATT. The driving objective of the WTO is thus raising the standard of living through ensuring full employment,
expansion of trade and production. It also allows for the optimal use of the available resources.
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expansion of trade and production. It also allows for the optimal use of the available resources.
Contrary to the GATT, which deal with goods only, the Marrakesh Agreement deals with both goods and services. It commits to the principle of sustainable development by seeking to protect and preserve the environment.
The WTO also seek to level the ground of trade to accommodate the developing countries through recognition of need to ensure the developing countries take a share in the international trade that is proportionate with the desires of their economic development.
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The WTO also seek to level the ground of trade to accommodate the developing countries through recognition of need to ensure the developing countries take a share in the international trade that is proportionate with the desires of their economic development.
The Marrakesh Agreement proposes the principle of reciprocity and mutually advantageous arrangements and non-discrimination as the means for achieving the above-mentioned goals. Article III of the Marrakesh Agreement offers more specific functions of the WTO.it defines five important functions of the WTO.
The first function of the body is to implement the agreements. The WTO is an avenue where structure for the implementation,
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The first function of the body is to implement the agreements. The WTO is an avenue where structure for the implementation, execution and operation of Plurilateral Trade Agreements discussed. Plurilateral agreements are under the WTO umbrella but have not received the same measure of support as the Multilateral Agreements.
The second function of WTO is to offer a negotiating forum.
The existence of the body was aimed at giving the member countries an avenue where Multilateral and Plurilateral trade agreements are negotiated.
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The existence of the body was aimed at giving the member countries an avenue where Multilateral and Plurilateral trade agreements are negotiated. Through negations, member countries are required to do so with honesty with the lone drive of opening their market further for trade.
WTO is also mandated to solve trade dispute between member countries. In achieving the mandate, WTO is expected to offer disputes and policy reviews.
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WTO is also mandated to solve trade dispute between member countries. In achieving the mandate, WTO is expected to offer disputes and policy reviews.
It is also expected to cooperate with IMF and World Bank in promoting coherence in economic policy making.
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It is also expected to cooperate with IMF and World Bank in promoting coherence in economic policy making.
The Marrakesh Agreement provides clear structures, political guidance, proper staff and appropriate financial provisions that have helped in enabling the smooth functioning of the body.
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The Marrakesh Agreement provides clear structures, political guidance, proper staff and appropriate financial provisions that have helped in enabling the smooth functioning of the body.
One of the core pillars of the WTO is its dispute settlement system. It is, therefore,
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One of the core pillars of the WTO is its dispute settlement system. It is, therefore,
vital to classify ways in which the dispute settlement scheme of the WTO has enhanced its objectives and principles. Further,
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vital to classify ways in which the dispute settlement scheme of the WTO has enhanced its objectives and principles. Further,
it is imperative to ascertain the adequacy of the Dispute Settlement System in terms of staffing, finance, and judicial power.
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it is imperative to ascertain the adequacy of the Dispute Settlement System in terms of staffing, finance, and judicial power.
Structure of the WTO The structure of the WTO is set under Article IV of the Marrakesh Agreement. WTO has the Ministerial;
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Structure of the WTO The structure of the WTO is set under Article IV of the Marrakesh Agreement. WTO has the Ministerial;
Conference that is made up of representatives from all countries that are members to the WTO.
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Conference that is made up of representatives from all countries that are members to the WTO.
The Ministerial Conference has the mandate to carry out all functions of the WTO and ensure that the objects and purpose of the WTO are fully met and adhered to by the member countries.
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The Ministerial Conference has the mandate to carry out all functions of the WTO and ensure that the objects and purpose of the WTO are fully met and adhered to by the member countries.
In conducting their mandate, the MC can be requested by a member country to make a finding on an existing Multilateral Trade Agreement.
The second limb of the WTO is the General Council.
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The second limb of the WTO is the General Council.
The GC has representative of all members’ state. The GC conducts the functions of the MC in the interval meetings of the MC.
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The GC has representative of all members’ state. The GC conducts the functions of the MC in the interval meetings of the MC.
The GC establishes its own operating rules and also approves the rules of operations of the Committees.
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The GC establishes its own operating rules and also approves the rules of operations of the Committees.
The GC plays a role in the judicial system of the WTO by convening in suitable times to discharge the responsibilities of the DSB. However, the GC cannot set rules of operation for the DSB since the DSB has its own chairperson.
Further, the GC can convene to discharge such duties and responsibilities as accorded to it by the Trade Policy Review Body (TPRB).
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Further, the GC can convene to discharge such duties and responsibilities as accorded to it by the Trade Policy Review Body (TPRB).
Like the DSB, the TPRB sets its own rules of operation for the accomplishment of its duties.
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Like the DSB, the TPRB sets its own rules of operation for the accomplishment of its duties.
The Marrakesh Agreement also establishes three Councils that deal with different aspects of trade> Part 5 of Article IV establishes Council for Trade in Goods that oversee the Multilateral Trade Agreements that deal with goods only.
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The Marrakesh Agreement also establishes three Councils that deal with different aspects of trade> Part 5 of Article IV establishes Council for Trade in Goods that oversee the Multilateral Trade Agreements that deal with goods only.
Such Agreements are annexed in the Marrakesh Agreement as Annex 1A.
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Such Agreements are annexed in the Marrakesh Agreement as Annex 1A.
The second Council is the Council for Trade in Services commonly referred to as the “GATS” that deal with trade in relation to services only.
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The second Council is the Council for Trade in Services commonly referred to as the “GATS” that deal with trade in relation to services only.
The last body is the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property rights that deal specifically with matters of intellectual property rights such as patents and copyrights.
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The last body is the Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property rights that deal specifically with matters of intellectual property rights such as patents and copyrights. The Council is generally referred to as the “TRIPS” within the WTO ranks. The three Councils have further Agreements that explicitly state their functions. They can also undertake any other function referred to them by the GC.
Nature of WTO’S Dispute Settlement System The WTO offers a unique system for the settlement of differences by member states (Jackson,
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Nature of WTO’S Dispute Settlement System The WTO offers a unique system for the settlement of differences by member states (Jackson,
2000 p 168).
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2000 p 168). Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) has a Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) under its umbrella that consist of dispute Panels and an Appellate body that adjudicates the trade disputes between parties.
A WTO member can invoke compulsory prerogative of the DSB by requesting for the establishment of the Panel.
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A WTO member can invoke compulsory prerogative of the DSB by requesting for the establishment of the Panel. The right of Appeal exists when the matter has been heard and determined by the Panel. However, at the appellate level,
the matters that are up for determination are legal matters only (Martin 2013 p. 95).
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the matters that are up for determination are legal matters only (Martin 2013 p. 95).
The increase of the economic factors in the reaction between countries is one of the factors that has shaped the change from the power-oriented diplomatic approaches of dispute settlement to a rule-oriented approach and impartial dispute settlement.
In essence, the DSU provides the forum of rules and judicial principles aimed at expediently solving the disputes.
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In essence, the DSU provides the forum of rules and judicial principles aimed at expediently solving the disputes.
It offers the developing countries an opportunity to air their economic grievances against the more developed and politically powerful countries (World Trade Organization 2004 p.
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It offers the developing countries an opportunity to air their economic grievances against the more developed and politically powerful countries (World Trade Organization 2004 p.
11). In other words, the DSB provides fair and reliable judicial rules and principles.
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11). In other words, the DSB provides fair and reliable judicial rules and principles.
The DSU provides an equitable dispute resolution mechanism that has enabled the WTO to legitimize its regime and to provide a better incentive to comply with the trading obligations required at the international level. Further, the advent of the DSU shows that countries were committed to judicializing the process of international trade settlement disputes.
Despite being a judicial system in terms of its physical setting and procedures, the DSU still promotes diplomacy and non-legal arguments within its ranks.
For instance, the settlement of a dispute normally accommodates other members from another field apart from the legal field.
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For instance, the settlement of a dispute normally accommodates other members from another field apart from the legal field.
The creation of a permanent appellate tribunal has enabled the DSU to enhance the role of legal resolution in the global level.
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The creation of a permanent appellate tribunal has enabled the DSU to enhance the role of legal resolution in the global level.
The resolution of the Appellate Tribunal cannot be contested in other forums including international courts such as International Court of Justice (ICJ).
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The resolution of the Appellate Tribunal cannot be contested in other forums including international courts such as International Court of Justice (ICJ).
The DSU operates from away from the principle of decision making of the WTO that require consensus of all member countries (Ezeani 2010 p.
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The DSU operates from away from the principle of decision making of the WTO that require consensus of all member countries (Ezeani 2010 p.
3). In this sense, in their reports, the Panels, and the Appellate body is liberated from writing a report that accommodates the interest of all disputing parties.
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3). In this sense, in their reports, the Panels, and the Appellate body is liberated from writing a report that accommodates the interest of all disputing parties.
This allows the Panels and the appellate body to concentrate on the case merits in making decision rather than the wants of the disputing parties.
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This allows the Panels and the appellate body to concentrate on the case merits in making decision rather than the wants of the disputing parties.
The appellate body’s reports are automatically binding unless they receive a negative vote from parties to the dispute. In reality,
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The appellate body’s reports are automatically binding unless they receive a negative vote from parties to the dispute. In reality,
however, it is very unusual to have both or all disputing parties to veto the reports.
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however, it is very unusual to have both or all disputing parties to veto the reports.
The system is set to expeditiously handle the trading dispute.
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The system is set to expeditiously handle the trading dispute.
The nature of international commerce and trade cannot allow for a case to drag for more than one year as this would portend doom for the commercial and trading world.
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The nature of international commerce and trade cannot allow for a case to drag for more than one year as this would portend doom for the commercial and trading world.
The Panels are required by law to take a maximum of six to nine months in settling the dispute.
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The Panels are required by law to take a maximum of six to nine months in settling the dispute.
Rulings of the Panel must be given within one year of its establishment. Appeals take two to three months for hearing and determination.
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Rulings of the Panel must be given within one year of its establishment. Appeals take two to three months for hearing and determination. The process of the Panel establishment to the date of DSB recommendation implementation should not exceed 18 months. However,
the parties can agree to certain exceptional circumstance to push the time frame forward (Zimmermann 2006 p. 178).
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the parties can agree to certain exceptional circumstance to push the time frame forward (Zimmermann 2006 p. 178).
The WTO dispute correction mechanisms allow for imposing sanctions where a country fails or is unwilling to bring WTO-inconsistent trade activities into agreement with the goals of the WTO measures into conformity with the objectives of the WTO (Zimmermann 2006 p.
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The WTO dispute correction mechanisms allow for imposing sanctions where a country fails or is unwilling to bring WTO-inconsistent trade activities into agreement with the goals of the WTO measures into conformity with the objectives of the WTO (Zimmermann 2006 p.
179). Members whose measures contravenes the WTO rules are accorded reasonable period to conform.
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179). Members whose measures contravenes the WTO rules are accorded reasonable period to conform.
Failure to conform leads to consolations between the concerned parties with the hope that the dispute is expediently solved in a period of twenty (20) days.
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Failure to conform leads to consolations between the concerned parties with the hope that the dispute is expediently solved in a period of twenty (20) days.
Despite being judicial process, the DSB operates not to pass judgment on a party.
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Despite being judicial process, the DSB operates not to pass judgment on a party.
The dispute settlement system aims at resolving disputes through consultations so as maintain the volatile trading system intact. For example,
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The dispute settlement system aims at resolving disputes through consultations so as maintain the volatile trading system intact. For example,
at the commencement of the year 2008, merely around 136 out of the 369 cases had extended to the full panel procedure.
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at the commencement of the year 2008, merely around 136 out of the 369 cases had extended to the full panel procedure. Most of the cases were notified as settled out of Court or in the consultation phase.
In terms of the trust, the DSU is the most successful structure of the WTO considering the number of cases it has successfully handled and the high number of compliance to its recommendations (Yerxa & Wilson 2005 p.
233). It has enabled the DSB to develop jurisprudence in the field of global business law by contributing the needed predictability and security to the multilateral trading system. The interpretation of the trading laws by the DSB enhances the development of customary international law and the tenets of international law (Damme 2009 p.
69). Interpreting the WTO laws is the most fundamental and sensitive issue that the DSB conduct. The interpretation of these laws must be clearly demarcated to point to the relevant law interpreted and to give clearly articulate findings considering the volatile nature of international trade engagements.
In this respect, the paper shall look into the interpretive work of the DSB; the WTO settlement system; and the general principles of law.
The position of the Dispute Settlement System cannot be understated in the global trade. The rule-based approach that has been developed by the WTO is easier to implement due to the dispute resolution system. The system had clear rule and laid down timelines for adjudication of case and consultations between member countries in dispute. In this respect, the dispute settlement system is cushioned by principles that govern the whole process of settling disputes. The principles are as discussed below.
The settling of the dispute in the WTO must be equitable in nature. The principle demands equal access and treatment before the law to all parties to the dispute. Further, the parties must be involved in equal capacity when it comes to choosing the dispute resolution panel members. The essence of the principle is to ensure that no party feels left out and aggrieved by the panel composition.
The next principle demand that the cases must be decided in an expedient manner to facilitate trading engagement between members is not compromised b prolonged and protracted legal proceedings. Further, the nature of commercial engagement demands that for the smooth continuance of world commerce, the cases must be dealt with fast and conclusively. The operating principle is the principle of expediency.
In interpreting multilateral and bilateral agreements, the dispute settlement system is required to offer meaning to the interpretation. The principle of effectiveness operates to ensure that the system is guarded against adopting the meaning that would render the whole system redundant (Yang, Li &Mercurio 2005 p. 21). The principle of effectiveness offers direction in situations where the treaty or multilateral agreement or a bilateral agreement interpretation has two possible interpretations. The system requires the analysis of the agreements to be contextually for the adoption of the best form of interpretation.
In the Reformed Gasoline case, the Appellate panel held that the interpretation of a provision should be such that it does not reduce the whole clauses or paragraphs of the agreements to redundancy or inutility.
In its view, the purpose of interpretation is to give effect and significance to the provisions and terms of the agreements (Yang, Li &Mercurio 2005 p. 22). The principle of effectiveness enables the members to understand how the agreements work in cohesion and not in isolation.
It is thus imperative for the WTO since the Agreements under WTO constitute a comprehensive legal system governing international trade. Holistic approach should thus provide the connection among the Agreements. Further, the Appellate Body reaffirmed their position of the effectiveness tenet in the EC Banana case, in which they insisted on a harmonious reading of the WTO Agreement to reach the most effective meaning.
Accordingly, the most effective meaning is the core in advancing the purpose and objects of the WTO. The principle of “good faith” that is the prevailing principle of law or a principle of customary international law also guides the WTO operation in almost every aspect of engagement. It starts for the negotiating process throughout to the carrying out the ruling of the DSB by member countries. The good faith principle demands that the parties must negotiate in good faith and commit to seeing that their obligations are met in practice to avoid frustrating agreement before its ratification. In the case of a disagreement, the parties must ensure that the dispute is settled in good faith so that the agreement may operate normally as was intended at the time of its signing (Mitchell 2011 p. 13).
Like other international institutions, WTO is a product of international law (Mitchell 2011 p. 13). The treaty establishing the WTO binds due to the underlying norm of “pactasuntservanda”. The norm denotes that every treaty is binding to all parties who must perform it in good faith (Damme 2009 p.
66). The Appellate Body has referred to the treaty as underlying the WTO agreements.
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66). The Appellate Body has referred to the treaty as underlying the WTO agreements. The principle has been well incorporated in the Dispute settlement system by the DSU Article 3.10 and Article 4.3.
The former requires that members must engage the dispute settlements procedures in good faith and with an aim to solve the dispute to a conclusive end. The later article speaks of honesty in relation to negotiations during conflict resolution.
The article requires that if a party is requested to join a mediating team in dispute resolution, it must do so in good faith and with the aim of reaching an amicable solution.
The principle that demands for “mutual acceptability” operates in two forms. The first form is that, the parties must agree on the process of solving the dispute before it reaches the WTO dispute settlement system (World Trade Organization 2010 p. 19). In most cases, the decision on dispute settlement is made at the point of negotiating a trade agreement. Parties may decide to hand the primary jurisdiction to the WTO dispute settlement system or hand the jurisdiction to a national court. When the court has primary jurisdiction, the parties’ dispute automatically lands in the DSB. On the other hand, secondary jurisdiction denies the DSB the first instance jurisdiction until all available local avenues have been exhausted. In this case, the DSB will handle the case on the basis of the appeal rather than going into the merits and facts of the case.
The right of standing before the panel is another principle that determines the procedural justice process. The right to standing is drawn for the principle of locus standi. The principle can operate as a shield and a sword of procedural justices.
Issues that raise procedural justice are normally associated with the situation where a state, not a party to the WTO claims a right to participate in the dispute settlement (World Trade Organization, & Organisation Mondiale Du Commerce 2012 p.
98). Further,
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98). Further, it can arise where a state argues for discontinuance of the proceeding on basis that the claimant state has no right to bring a claim for want of legal interest in the subject matter in the absence of other states.
However, both panel and the appellate levels have considered the right of all parties to the WTO agreement to bring a dispute settlement claim. Therefore, acceding to the WTO agreement automatically gives a party the locus standi to bring a claim before the DSB.
However, there is no provision of a specific nature in the DSU that demands that a party should have “legal interest “to be able to request a panel. Further, there is no implied notion of that might point to establishing “legal interest” before approaching the panel. The WTO agreement does not provide explicit for it. The practice of the parties to the dispute has consistently following this silent rule before requesting for the panel composition despite the clear and broad discretion accorded to the member countries to bring claims against other members. The practice in bringing the dispute before the panel is largely self-regulating in deciding whether it would be prudent to institute an action against other members. The widening of this scope is brought by the interdependence of the global economy.
These principles are essential for the functioning of the WTO dispute settlement system since they underlie the whole aspect of justice delivery. In consideration of the principles, it is of paramount importance to consider how the dispute settlement process operates within the bounds of these principles.
Dispute Settlement Process Dispute settlement normally takes a more formal approach in the event that such dispute arises. When a nation is of the opinion that a trade activity contravenes the WTO Agreement, such country must first raise the concern with the party in question for violation as a way of trying to solve the matter informally. However, in certain instances, informal bilateral consultations are effective in dispute resolution. Failure to solve the matter within the laid down reasonable time gives the complainant the right to institute a formal complaint to the DSB (Barton, Goldstein, Josling& Steinberg 2010 p. 72).
However, this is usually not the state of affairs in some instances. The parties may fail to agree on consultation but instead of referring the concern to the DSB, the call on the WTO director-general to serve as a mediator in a bid to solve the disputes.
The formal process of dispute settlement begins at the point at which the request for consultation is made at the WTO. The request must give a precise description of the measure complained about and the legal ground for registering a complaint. The party against whom the petition is made must respond within ten days. The WTO law demands that the party so requested must endeavour to enter into consultations as soon as possible and in good faith with a view of amicably solving the dispute within thirty-day period (Barton, Goldstein, et al 2010 p. 72).
The failure of the party to reply to a request may give the applicant the right to request for the institution of a panel. This can only occur after the thirty-day period has elapsed. However, when the party agrees to consultations, the law expects them to reach a conclusive end within a period of sixty days. The purpose of the sixty-day period is to ensure that the parties are accorded ample time to try out negotiations as a dispute resolution mechanism between them (Dimsey 2008 p. 179).
Any breach of the settlement should, in accordance with Article 3.5 of the DSU, be brought forward before the DSB and the relevant Councils and Committees. The aim of such notifications is to prevent a negative effect to the party resulting from a breach of WTO provisions by another party. Failure to reach a conclusive end may call for two actions. First consultation period may be extended upon consent of the parties. Moreover, the aggrieved party may proceed to invoke the jurisdiction of the DSB over the matter (Dimsey 2008 p. 181).
In case the complaining party invokes the jurisdiction of the DSB, the dispute is considered to have entered adjudication stage. It normally commences with a request for establishment of a panel to investigate the matter. Article 6 of the DSU provides for the automatic establishment of the panel upon the appearance of the request for the second time on the DSB’s agenda. In this case, the defending country can only stop the formation of the panel during the first and not the second stage. The parties to the conflict shall decide on the composition of the panel but in case they do not agree, the director-general of the WTO shall appoint the panelists as espoused under Article 8.7 of the DSU.
The proceedings of the Panel consist of written submission and oral hearing. The parties have many options to present their case and to rebut the argument of either side. When submission and rebuttals have been made, the panel makes prepares a report which includes a ruling in six months after the beginning of the panel or in extreme circumstances, within nine months unless the parties request that the proceeding be suspended in view of Article 12.12 of the DSU.
The report is presented to the DSB for adoption or rejection whichever the DSB consider necessary. However, the panel report can only be rejected on a consensus agreement. Consequently, almost all the reports of the panel are adopted unless one or both parties register an appeal with the Appellate Body.
In the case an appeal is registered, the DSB halts any discussion on the report.
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In the case an appeal is registered, the DSB halts any discussion on the report.
The mandate of the Appellate Body is somewhat limited since it can only determine matters of law that relate to the interpretation,
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The mandate of the Appellate Body is somewhat limited since it can only determine matters of law that relate to the interpretation,
application and any other related legal undertaking by the panel and not the facts of the case. Like the Panel,
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application and any other related legal undertaking by the panel and not the facts of the case. Like the Panel,
the Appellate Body is accorded sixty to ninety days to issue a report. After the report is made,
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the Appellate Body is accorded sixty to ninety days to issue a report. After the report is made,
the Appellate Body must present it within thirty days to the DSB for consideration.
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the Appellate Body must present it within thirty days to the DSB for consideration.
This report will be ratified by the DSB unless the members of the DSB unanimously reject its adoption.
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This report will be ratified by the DSB unless the members of the DSB unanimously reject its adoption.
A party that contravenes of the WTO rules is granted at least fifteen months to correct such contravention (Article 21.3c of DSU), failure to which two consequences may arise; the complaining may apply for permission to take countermeasures against the responding nation. However, the countermeasures must be reasonable. Failure by a party to comply within the period accorded to it has two consequences. However, in case the respondent takes action to bring the trade measure into compliance but the complainant deems them as inadequate, the opinion of the original panel regarding the adequacy is sought (Article 21.5 of DSU).
The dispute settlement method of the WTO is open to all members. However, exercising the right has often been impeded by the lengthy and cost of the proceedings. Further, developing countries and small countries are reluctant to seek redress from the dispute system since they find the prospect of enforcing the ruling in their favour as bleak due to limited retaliatory power (Georgiev & Borght 2007 p. 178). Further, dependency on bigger and developed countries may work against a small country that seeks to bring a complaint against a developed country that it depends on for financial aid or support.
Third Party Intervention The right of third parties to be involved in the dispute process is governed by article 10 of the DSU. It ensures that the place of third parties in the proceedings is well defined. A third party is defined as the state that has a substantial interest on the subject matter before the panel and has notified the DSB on the nature of its interest. The third party shall be accorded the chance to appear before the panel and produce submissions in writing to the panel. However, the third party participation does not enjoy some privileges, like the appeal rights but upon the appeal of the finding by either party, the third party participation has the right to fully participate by making submissions to the Appellate Body.
The rule that demands third party to have “substantial interest” in the matter before being included in the judicial or negations processes is in itself confusing. The DSU does not offer any explanation as to the meaning of “substantial interest” and the extent of its application or interpretation.
The rule was meant to give the disputing parties an ample opportunity to consult and negotiate at the exclusion of all other parties. However, the requests by third parties to join the negotiations are often granted.
The interpretation of the rule has been extended to include matters that arise from systematic concerns. For instance, Japan raised the systematic concern as a way of being thwart the USA bid to block it on the basis of lack of trade interest.
However,
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However, the rule of systematic interest cannot be used as a substitute to the rule of “substantial interest.” The rule has worked to broaden the involvement of third parties in the discussions and negotiations.
A broader interpretation of the “substantial interest rule” is important for the WTO system and in achieving its objects and purpose. First, it limits the number of cases that might arise if the case was decided between two parties leaving out the thoughts of a third party who might decide to institute a separate case on the same matter.
It also helps in the holistic development of the WTO laws since the negotiations involving other parties would have a far reaching effect in terms of the jurisprudential development. The language of the DSU Article 4 when interpreted in its basic form may spell doom for the third party participation in the dispute system resolution.
The Article provides that a party request for consultation to another party who must respond in good faith.
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The Article provides that a party request for consultation to another party who must respond in good faith.
The place of third parties in the Article is not provided for in all consideration.
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The place of third parties in the Article is not provided for in all consideration.
The Article predicts a consultation between two disputing parties and not a party with substantial interest. The matter does not seem complicated when the matter in dispute arises out of a multilateral trade agreement as the exemption will automatically come into operation thus allowing third parties.
On the contrary,
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On the contrary, a dispute that arise from a bilateral trade agreement presents a problem when it comes to third parties even on reliance on systematic interest in the prevailing matter.
Third parties involvement in the negotiations between the disputing parties has certain effects on the case proceeding and the eventual outcome of the ruling by a panel or the Appellate Body.
The part that third parties perform in the legal system of the WTO is both unique and imperative to the development of the case.
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The part that third parties perform in the legal system of the WTO is both unique and imperative to the development of the case.
In decision making, the WTO dispute settlement body must consider the position of the third party in making decision.
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In decision making, the WTO dispute settlement body must consider the position of the third party in making decision.
Therefore,
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Therefore, the involvement of third party in the judicial process of the WTO would automatically bring out a different verdict that would otherwise had been reached were it decided on the basis of the two disputing parties’ submissions.
Some experts have asserted that the presence of a third person at the negotiating table helps in the balancing of the negotiations. In this sense, the parties would feel more relaxed thus making it easier for them to heed their position for the middle ground.
However, the notion might not be entirely true. The presence of third parties in the negotiations may not give the negotiations the smooth ride that it needs. It lowers the prospect of an early solution since the parties will be dealing with three contradicting interest which may prove difficult to balance in the long run.
As a result, most cases involving third parties stand a higher chance of heading up to the ruling stage and lower the prospects of being withdrawn. However, despite the challenges that the third parties present to the negotiations, the overall contribution that they bring to the system cannot be understated.
Challenges Facing the Dispute Settlement System Despite the dispute system of the WTO being regarded as the most successful institution within the WTO system, it has not failed to draw certain criticism from the member countries. In the same breadth, the WTO dispute settlement have experienced challenges that arise from these critics.
The purpose of any justice system is to ensure that cases are handled in an expedient, efficient and impartial manner. The aim of these driving principles is to create a system that is equitable and predictable to all parties concerned. The Agreement establishing the WTO highlights a strong and a clear dispute settlement mechanism. The expectation of the parties according to the vision and the goal of WTO was that it would promote the position of weaker parties in international trade dispute settlement and the trade negotiations in general (Damme 2009 p. 65). Despite the strong desire by the establishing document to see through the goals, several obstacles still exist to impede the smooth transition from the document to the reality of world trade. The discussion below shows factors that have contributed to the negative perception that the Dispute settlement have drawn from members, scholars, and other stakeholders.
The DSB has constantly faced criticism in relation to actions that members deem as overstepping of their statutory mandate. This has been a major problem to the DSB to shake off.
The argument is that the two bodies under the DSB normally stay in the area of authoritative interpretation or amendment which is an exclusive mandate of the members of the WTO under Articles IX and X of the Marrakesh Agreement.
The Appellate Body approach to the issue of amicus curie has also elicited mixed reaction especially with regard to the case of US-Shrimp case (Kulovesi 2011 p.210). The Body sought unsolicited briefs that amounted to changing the character of the WTO in a certain respect.
The Appellate Body treated the matter as a procedural matter instead of a substantial matter that fell in the mandate of the members to decide on the outcome. The case changed the inter-governmental nature that the WTO was meant to maintain by including the non-governmental organizations (Foltea 2012 p.
15). Further, the decision could harm the developing countries that do not have NGOs with financial muscles to participate in the dispute system. The Appellate Body perceived overstepping of the mandate accorded it had enhanced the creation of new rights and obligations upon members.
A holistic view of the process also goes against the practice that DSB sought to establish in relation to dispute solving. The DSB is informed by the fact that its purpose is not aimed at passing judgments (Kulovesi 2011 p.
211). In practice, the DSB has developed a judge-made law that has prevented members from taking safeguard measures as entitled under the Safeguard Agreement. The approach has made the DSB come out as a body formed for judicial activism.
The application of judicially based rules to determine the disputes between members have led to the call of the return of actual negotiations. The purpose of the current call is to grant control to the disputing parties more control on the matters of dispute rather than according the Appellate Body much control.
Another disturbing trend is the low level of transparency shown by the Panel in relation to certain matters. The Panel is some instances use materials that members cannot access in the long run. For instance in the Canada-EU case, the Panel Report refers to an “Informal GATT secretariat note” which the members of the WTO do not have access. The tradition contravenes the need for transparency within the ranks of the dispute settlement.
One of the notable unique features of the WTO is that it is the only international body that has the rule of law. As noted earlier, the WTO was set to be rule-oriented and not power oriented (Jackson, 2000 p. 171). However, this is normally not the practice. Industrial countries have been consistently and constantly putting pressure on the WTO to bring forth non-trade issues. The industrialized countries have often used international politics as a factor in the dispute system thereby weakening the position of developing countries that rely heavily on funding from these countries. The continued practice of politics within the WTO goes against the needs of the Marrakesh Agreement and the DSU Article 23 which demands a stronger system (Barton, et al. 2010 p. 89).
The existence of these criticisms against the DSB is however somehow farfetched. The concerns that parties raise against the system is normally micro-concerns in nature thus tend to look at cases in exclusive of other cases leading to a conclusion that the Body is at fault just on basis of a single case. A holistic approach to the system is, therefore, necessary for ascertain its failures and successes. As a consequence the criticism that the DSB is constantly facing is a result of the new innovative ideas in dealing with dispute settlement (Martin 2013 p. 99). The volatile debate of the successes and failures of the dispute system is, therefore, a normal occurrence.
Achievements of the WTO Dispute Settlement System The main achievement of the WTO disputes system in cultivating a culture of trust from the member countries than it was anticipated at its inception. Despite the persistent arguments that the system does not favour developing countries, the DSB has been used by both the developing and developed countries in equal measure (Georgiev&Borght 2007 p. 179). The access of the system by member countries shows that there is trust as to its capabilities in ensuring trade disputes is resolved efficiently. The high rate of compliance from member countries can also testify to the level of trust accorded to the system (Yerxa& Wilson 2005 p. 233).
The approach given to the interpretation of the WTO Agreements follows the demands of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties Article 31. The result has enabled the development of an orderly method to the interpretation of the trade agreements. The system has, therefore, helped in the development of international law in general. The system did not adopt its own interpretive rules but has relied on the rules of interpretation of the Vienna Convention. In this respect it enhances system predictability (World Trade Organization 2004 p. 10). The essence of the practice has led to the enlargement of international law precedence that has enabled easy understanding of the WTO laws. The DSB operation has also enhanced procedural law and substantive law making the WTO body of laws more coherent and comprehensible (World Trade Organization 2004 p. 10).
Conclusion The WTO has made tremendous steps since it was established. The operations of the WTO in relation to settling disputes have been one of the factors that have majorly contributed largely to the WTO perceived successes. The practice in the WTO dispute settlement is an important aspect that has encouraged the on-going globalization especially on matters of trade. However, the WTO still needs to overcome the several obstacles and take steps to win over members that criticize it judicial system. There is a need to enhance the aspect of transparency and reduce infiltration of politics. In other respects, WTO has surpassed the expectation of the member countries since came into operation.