1. Doubt 1: Rainforest part survey
A team of loreers surveys the place part at a enumerate of plights among a rainforest. They besides congregate stain grounds and improvement grounds coercion these plights, as courteous as recording whether each plight was in a discouragement, on a prosper, or on a ridge. Their lore doubt was whether stain characteristics, improvement and/or field lie could restraintebode the vegetation communities at unanalogous plights.
How manifold plights were there?
1 points
QUESTION 2
1. How manifold part were recorded?
1 points
QUESTION 3
1. What remoteness administration is most alienate to reckon a remoteness matrix betwixt the plights fixed on the log-transformed part reckon grounds?

Bray-curtis
Euclidean
1 points
QUESTION 4
1. Now defy whether there is a dissimilarity betwixt plights in unanalogous field lies, in stipulations of their vegetation adjustment. Construct and frame a nmMDS of the plights. What is the urgency coercion the MDS (to brace decimal places)?

1 points
QUESTION 5
1. Does this balance that the MDS is a cool fidelity of the dissimilaritys betwixt plights? YES/NO

1 points
QUESTION 6
1. Which plight extinguished of plights 1,2 and 3 likenesss most unanalogous to integral the other plights in stipulations of vegetation adjustment? 1/2/3

1 points
QUESTION 7
1. Fabricate the plights colour specify their lie among the field (valley, prosper or ridge) – is there a visual token that the plights bunch by field lie?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 8
1. Does an ANOSIM pretence that this bunching is symbolical?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 9
1. Does a PERMANOVA pretence that this bunching is symbolical?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 10
1. Now mold your heed to the environmental (stain and improvement) grounds, including measures of stain Ph, plight improvement, and flattens of stain P, Ca, Mg, K and N (in ppm) and percentage stain radical subject. Is there sign of interdependences in this grounds?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 11
1. Fulfil a controlemost components decommutation on this environmental grounds. Controlemost do this withextinguished scaling the shiftings. Frame the goodsing PCA biplot. Which shifting(s) is/are dominating the goodss?

Ca, Mg and Ph
K
P
Improvement and Ca
N and stain radical subject
1 points
QUESTION 12
1. Why?
Owing these accept the biggest values
Owing these accept the smallest values
Owing they are the most influentially correlated
Owing they are referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable influentially correlated
Owing these accept ample bigger independent variability than the others, owing they accept bigger independent values
Owing these accept ample bigger referring-to variability than the others, owing they accept bigger independent values
1 points
QUESTION 13
1. Now fulfil the controlemost components decommutation on the environmental grounds with scaling, and frame the goodsing PCA biplot. Which would be emend if we deficiency to impart homogeneous consequence to integral the environmental shiftings in our decomposition?

PCA with scaling
PCA withextinguished scaling
1 points
QUESTION 14
1. Regard the goodss of the PCA that imparts homogeneous consequence to integral the environmental shiftings. How ample estrangement do the controlemost brace PCs elucidate (as a percent extinguished of 100)?
____________________
1 points
QUESTION 15
1. Does this balance that the 2-D biframe is a cool fidelity of the abnormity in the environmental grounds opposing the plights?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 16
1. Abnormity in which of the environmental shiftings is cheapest courteous specifyed in the 2-D biplot?

Ca
N
P
Mg
K
Elevation
Ph
1 points
QUESTION 17
1. According to the biplot, which plight likenesss relish it has the primary flattens of P? (penetrate upright the enumerate of the plight)
________

1 points
QUESTION 18
1. Which shiftings semblance to be influentially categorically corcognate with Ca?

K and improvement
Improvement and P
Ph and Mg
N and stain radical subject
1 points
QUESTION 19
1. Which shiftings semblance to be influentially disclaimingly corcognate with improvement?

K and improvement
Improvement and P
Ph and Mg
N and stain radical subject
1 points
QUESTION 20
1. Which shifting likenesss to be categorically corcognate with stain N calm?} disclaimingly corcognate with stain Ca?

K
stain radical subject
P
Ph
Mg
elevation
1 points
QUESTION 21
1. Which shiftings semblance to disassent unconnectedly of improvement?

K and P
Ca and P
Upright P
Ph and Mg
N and stain radical subject
1 points
QUESTION 22
1. How does stain N likeness to be cognate to stain Ca?

Categorically correlated
Negatively correlated
Referable attributable attributable attributable attributable correlated
1 points
QUESTION 23
1. PC1 is most influentially cognate to which shifting?
K/stain radical mater/Ph/Mg/elevation/P/N/Ca

2. PC2 is most influentially cognate to which shifting?
K/stain radical mater/Ph/Mg/elevation/P/N/Ca

3. PC3 is most influentially cognate to which shifting?
K/stain radical mater/Ph/Mg/elevation/P/N/Ca/

3 points
QUESTION 24
1. Is there a sympathy betwixt improvement and Shannon dissonance condemnation?

Yes, a indisputable sympathy
Yes, a disclaiming sympathy
No, no symbolical sympathy
1 points
QUESTION 25
1. Is there a sympathy betwixt PC1 and Shannon dissonance condemnation?

Yes, a indisputable sympathy
Yes, a disclaiming sympathy
No, no symbolical sympathy
1 points
QUESTION 26
1. Is there a sympathy betwixt PC2 and Shannon dissonance condemnation?

Yes, a indisputable sympathy
Yes, a disclaiming sympathy
No, no symbolical sympathy
1 points
QUESTION 27
1. Is there a sympathy betwixt PC3 and Shannon dissonance condemnation?

Yes, a indisputable sympathy
Yes, a disclaiming sympathy
No, no symbolical sympathy
1 points
QUESTION 28
1. Does the adonis administration specify a symbolical sympathy betwixt dissimilaritys in stain P and dissimilaritys in vegetation adjustment?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 29
1. Does the adonis administration specify a symbolical sympathy betwixt dissimilaritys in stain K and dissimilaritys in vegetation adjustment?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 30
1. Does the adonis administration specify a symbolical sympathy betwixt dissimilaritys in stain N and dissimilaritys in vegetation adjustment?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 31
1. Does the adonis administration specify a symbolical sympathy betwixt dissimilaritys in stain Ca and dissimilaritys in vegetation adjustment?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 32
1. Does the adonis administration specify a symbolical sympathy betwixt dissimilaritys in improvement and dissimilaritys in vegetation adjustment?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 33
Which PCs and interactions accept a symbolical good-tempereds on adjustment?
pc1 yesno
pc2 yesno
pc3 yesno
pc1:pc2 yesno
pc1:pc3 yesno
pc2:pc3 yesno
pc1:pc2:pc3 yesno

7 points
QUESTION 34
1. Does this contest the goodss of the controlegoing tests?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 35
Which of the subjoined conclusions would you haul from this decommutation over, accounting coercion the interdependences in environmental shiftings that you observed?
● Improvement semblances to accept an good-tempereds on part adjustment, calm?} this may in-fact be an alien good-tempereds attributable to dissimilaritys in stain N YES/NO
● Improvement semblances to accept an good-tempereds on part adjustment, calm?} this may in-fact be an alien good-tempereds attributable to dissimilaritys in stain P YES/NO

● Improvement semblances to accept an good-tempereds on part adjustment, calm?} this may in-fact be an alien good-tempereds attributable to dissimilaritys in stain Ph YES/NO

● K semblances to accept an good-tempereds on part adjustment, calm?} this may in-fact be an alien good-tempereds attributable to dissimilaritys in stain N YES/NO

K semblances to accept an good-tempereds on part adjustment, calm?} this may in-fact be an alien good-tempereds attributable to dissimilaritys in stain P YES/NO

● K semblances to accept an good-tempereds on part adjustment, calm?} this may in-fact be an alien good-tempereds attributable to dissimilaritys in stain Ph YES/NO

● P semblances to accept an good-tempereds on part adjustment, calm?} this may in-fact be an alien good-tempereds attributable to dissimilaritys in stain N YES/NO

● P semblances to accept an good-tempereds on part adjustment, calm?} this may in-fact be an alien good-tempereds attributable to dissimilaritys in stain improvement YES/NO

● P semblances to accept an good-tempereds on part adjustment, calm?} this may in-fact be an alien good-tempereds attributable to dissimilaritys in stain Ph YES/NO

9 points
QUESTION 36
1. The most cheap part is part enumerate:
___________________
1 points
QUESTION 37
This part prefers (proportionately violent/intermediate/proportionately cheap) improvement plights with (proportionately violent/intermediate/proportionately cheap) flattens of P and (proportionately violent/intermediate/relatively) cheap Ph flattens.

3 points
QUESTION 38
1. The avoid most cheap part is part enumerate:
___________________
1 points
QUESTION 39
This part prefers (proportionately violent/intermediate/relatively) cheap improvement plights with (proportionately violent/intermediate/proportionately cheap) flattens of P and (proportionately violent/intermediate/proportionately cheap) Ph flattens.

3 points
QUESTION 40
1. Over guinea pigs
My acquaintance was so scared abextinguished the undeveloped of testing his baby guinea pigs to restraintebode their gathering hair elongation, enumerate of rosettes and haphazard of pretence prosperity, that he did the undivided fiction repeatedly the subjoined year, calm?} with a senior enumerate of babies.
The goodsing grounds is in the finish ‘guineapigs assignment.csv’. Open it up in Excel and accept a likeness. Then achieve the grounds into R.
Has he measured the identical shiftings as definite opportunity?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 41
1. How manifold guinea pigs did he apprehend in his examine this opportunity?
________________

1 points
QUESTION 42
1. Harmonize a multiple retreat example restraintebodeing adult gathering regardable elongation with integral the ‘baby’ shiftings as restraintebodeors, calm?} no interactions (cintegral this example fm coercion ‘unmeasured example’).
How manifold shiftings pretence as symbolical (p<0.05) in the example dissection?
__________________
1 points
QUESTION 43
1. How manifold shiftings pretence as very greatly symbolical (p<0.001) in the example dissection?
__________________
1 points
QUESTION 44
1. Likeness at the interdependence betwixt the restraintebodeors visually and/or numerically. Do we visit homogeneous interdependence patterns in the restraintebodeors to those we saying definite opportunity?

yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 45
1. Carefully do stride-wise example preoption fixed on detriment the cheapest symbolical signal until singly symbolical stipulations are left (sm1 coercion ‘simplified example 1’). Are you left with the identical symbolical shiftings as in the unmeasured example?
yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 46
1. Now do automated stride-wise example abatement of the unmeasured example fixed on AIC (sm2). Are you left with any stipulations in simplified example 2 that were referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable retained in simplified example 1?
yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 47
1. Now gauge to harmonize a multiple retreat example restraintebodeing adult gathering regardable elongation with integral the ‘baby’ shiftings as restraintebodeors, and besides integral avoid enjoin interactions (fim coercion ‘unmeasured interactions example’). Why can we do that this opportunity, occasion it didn’t production in the labs?
❏ Owing there are over shiftings.
❏ Owing there are close shiftings.
❏ Owing there are over observations.
❏ Owing there are close observations.
❏ Owing we are using a unanalogous preoption test.
1 points
QUESTION 48
1. Do automated stride-wise example abatement of this example fixed on AIC (fims coercion ‘unmeasured interactions example, simplified’). Are you left with any stipulations in the simplified interactions example that were referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable retained in simplified example 2?
yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 49
1. Now harmonize a void example (fmn). Then portraiture the stride administration to do automated ‘both directions’ example preoption fixed on AIC, integralowing integral baby shiftings and up to avoid enjoin interactions betwixt them (cintegral it fmbda1 with ‘bda’ coercion ‘both directions AIC’). Likeness at the dissection of this example.
Now gauge doing the identical fiction – automated ‘both directions’ example preoption fixed on AIC, integralowing integral baby shiftings and up to avoid enjoin interactions betwixt them, calm?} this opportunity starting with sm1 instead of the void example (cintegral it fmbda2). Likeness at the dissection of this example.
Now gauge automated ‘both directions’ example preoption fixed on BIC, calm?} integralowing integral baby shiftings and up to avoid enjoin interactions betwixt them – gauge starting controlemost with the void example then with sm1 – cintegral the goodsing examples fmbdb1 and fmbdb2. Likeness at the dissection of these examples.
Likeness at the AIC of the seven examples that we accept harmonizeted fixed on some peel of example/shifting preoption (repudiate unmeasured examples where no preoption was applied – they must be worse).
Likeness at the BIC of these seven examples.
Some of these examples are in-fact the identical example ie the unanalogous progresss accept institute the identical ‘best example’. If we depart these duplicates, how manifold independent unanalogous simplified examples do we accept left to regard?
____________________
1 points
QUESTION 50
Which undivided has the best AIC? ____________________
And which the best BIC? ______________________
(Fabricate believing you transcribe the example pointedness precisely coercion these – if over than undivided example had resembling best AIC or BIC, either pointedness conciliate do.)
Undivided of the examples is explicitly referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable a good-tempered-tempered example to regard, as it has the thrash BIC and is besides indeed involved. Which undivided? ______________________
This example goodsed from the automated preoption progress ‘getting accumulate’ and referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable simplifying ample. Never commission an automated example simplification progress!! 🙂 So we can liberty that undivided extinguished.
3 points
QUESTION 51
Likeness closely at the fostering examples. We can infer that the (more/less) hormone3 a baby has, the desireer its gathering hair elongation is relishly to be when adult.

1 points
QUESTION 52
1. In observation, the over of what hormundivided enumerate would goods in the the baby most relishly having shorter gathering hair elongation as an adult?
_____________

1 points
QUESTION 53
1. The other shifting that likenesss to be a influential restraintebodeor is: (Transcribe integral shifting names precisely as they semblance in the spreadsheets).
_________________
1 points
QUESTION 54
1. This influential restraintebodeor shifting has a (positive/negative) sympathy with adult gathering regardable elongation.

1 points
QUESTION 55
1. There is some token that the good-tempereds of hormundivided 3 influence halt on: (Transcribe integral shifting names precisely as they semblance in the spreadsheets).
_____________
1 points
QUESTION 56
Surpassing flattens of this shifting (reduced/increased) the good-tempereds of hormundivided 3.

1 points
QUESTION 57
1. Of these symbolical restraintebodeors, the undivided most relishly to be confounded with other restraintebodeors is: (Transcribe integral shifting names precisely as they semblance in the spreadsheets).
____________
1 points
QUESTION 58
1. Do the goodss assent precisely with the controlemost decommutation conducted in the lab?
yes
no
1 points
QUESTION 59
1. Which shifting likenessed perhaps influential then calm?} referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable here? (Transcribe integral shifting names precisely as they semblance in the spreadsheets).
______________________
1 points
QUESTION 60
1. Which shifting likenesss influential here calm?} referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable then? (Transcribe integral shifting names precisely as they semblance in the spreadsheets).
_____________________________
1 points
QUESTION 61
1. Now, rosettes!
Create a upstart TRUE/FALSE shifting in-reference-to whether the adult pig had 8 rosettes, relish we did in the lab.
Gauge to experience the best example restraintebodeing whether an adult guinea pig conciliate accept rosettes, fixed on BIC. Apprehend up to avoid enjoin interactions in the feasible example stipulations regarded. Gauge a rare unanalogous starting points to fabricate believing you acceptn’t got accumulate somewhere distant from the best example (To fabricate it a morsel simpler, don’t tantalize abextinguished AIC this opportunity.)
What would you infer from this best example?
There likeness to be brace shiftings portraitureful in restraintebodeing whether an adult pig conciliate accept 8 rosettes: undivided is hormundivided enumerate:
____________________________
1 points
QUESTION 62
1. and the other is a ‘considerable shifting’ i.e.:

❏ baby.fur.length.head
❏ baby.fur.length.stomach
❏ baby.fur.length.back
❏ baby.fur.lightness
❏ baby.fur.smoothness
❏ baby.fur.n.colours
1 points
QUESTION 63
1. There (is/is referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable) a symbolical interaction betwixt these brace shiftings.

1 points
QUESTION 64
1. This specifys that the good-tempereds of undivided (does/does referable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable attributable) halt on the flatten of the other.
1 points
QUESTION 65
1. When the regardable shifting is referring-toly cheap, the hormundivided has a (influential indisputable/influential disclaiming/medium indisputable/medium disclaiming/weak indisputable/weak disclaiming) good-tempereds on the haphazard that a pig conciliate accept 8 rosettes, occasion when the regardable shifting is referring-toly violent, the hormundivided has a (influential indisputable/influential disclaiming/medium indisputable/medium disclaiming/weak indisputable/weak disclaiming) good-tempereds the haphazard that a pig conciliate accept 8 rosettes.

2 points
QUESTION 66
1. There is a 90%+ haphazard that a pig conciliate accept 8 rosettes. This is when the regardable shifting is at the cheapest flatten it was measured at, and the symbolical hormundivided flatten is violpenetrate than environing:

1 points
QUESTION 67
1. When the regardable shifting is at the primary flatten it was measured at, the haphazard that a pig conciliate accept 8 rosettes (increases/decreases) as the symbolical hormundivided flatten increases.

1 points
QUESTION 68
1. When the hormundivided is at very cheap flattens the percentage haphazard is environing:
______________
1 points
QUESTION 69
1. When the hormundivided is at very violent flattens the percentage haphazard is environing:
_______________
1 points
QUESTION 70
1. Now, my acquaintance has five upstart guinea pig babies. Is it going to be a pampered history of indulgences to equip coercion the pretence, or…. The BBQ?!?
He has measured integral the restraintebodeors on them. The grounds is in the finish ‘guineapigs asignment year3.csv’.
Fixed on the example that had the cheapest BIC, restraintebode the adult gathering regardable elongation of each of these five babies? Transcribe down the five restraintebodeions (music these elongations are cm! desire haired guinea pigs! calm?} upright penetrate the enumerates). Remember the ‘predict’ administration!
Predictions are:
Guinea pig baby 1:
_______________
1 points
QUESTION 71
1. Guinea pig baby 2:
____________________
1 points
QUESTION 72
1. Guinea pig baby 3:
______________________
1 points
QUESTION 73
1. Guinea pig baby 4:
______________________
1 points
QUESTION 74
1. Guinea pig baby 5:
_________________________
1 points
QUESTION 75
1. Fixed on the example that had the cheapest BIC, what is the verisimilitude of having precisely eight rosettes coercion each of these five babies? Rank the babies from primary to cheapest haphazard. The baby with the primary haphazard is enumerate: (1,2,3,4,5) and the baby with the cheapest haphazard is enumerate: (1,2,3,4,5).

2 points
QUESTION 76
1. Which baby is safest from the BBQ? Guinea pig baby enumerate: (1,2,3,4,5)

1 points
QUESTION 77
1. Which brace are most relishly to move the warmth? Guinea pig baby enumerate: (1,2,3,4,5) and guinea pig baby enumerate: (1,2,3,4,5). (Fabricate believing you penetrate these in numerical enjoin, so if it was 1 and 5, then penetrate 1 then 5, NOT 5 then 1).