Ancient Roman Inventions and Technology


Student’s Name

Ancient Roman Inventions and Technology
The Roman Empire was formed in the 8th century BCE as a humble city. Aristocratic kings originally ruled Rome and by the 6th century BCE, it has turned into a republic. Rome started to expand until it had control over the whole Italian Peninsula. However, their government could be referred to as an aristocracy due to the fact that only the influential families who had connections with the original could rule. These families were referred to as patricians while plebeians were the rest of the people. Ancient Rome had remarkable technological accomplishments and some of these advancements were abandoned during the Middle Ages: some resurfaced during the 19th and 20th centuries. Insulated glazing is an example of such inventions and this was lost until its reinvention in 1930s. Other practical Roman innovations were an advancement of original Greek designs. These technological advancements were split into various categories which were done according to craft. Artisans were would keep these technologies as a secret in order to protect their trade. A large part of the Roman inventions included military engineering and civil engineering. These enabled the construction of many auditoria, bridges, roads and baths among others. The Roman architecture, which also borrowed from Greek traditions is still very famous and is termed as “Classical architecture”. Greek and Roman architecture had some differences although Rome used many of the formulaic designs of Greece .
This paper seeks to answer this question by looking at the various Roman inventions and technology and the significance they hold. Personally, I believe the Romans paved way for many of the technology humans enjoy today. This is due to the fact that they originally invented things like concrete to be used in construction and although adjustments and developments have been made from the time of the ancient Rome to date, they still take the glory for inventing this building material. Most of the comforts people enjoy today as a result of technology were brought about by the Romans. For example, the Romans were concerned with hygiene and so they invented the public baths which they were known for and these were referred to as thermae. They later invented many flush toilets and indoor plumbing in their homes which were later subjected to more advancement to create the ones used by humans today. For this reason, it can be argued that roman inventions forms a basis for today’s advanced lifestyle .
Rome was a powerful city for a long time until its collapse in the 5th century AD. The prosperity can be attributed partly to its leadership as well as technological advancements it came up with which made it the most envied and revered cities of its time. Although Rome collapsed, some of its inventions still stand erect a thousand years later indicating how strong they were, a good example of this include the roads made by the roman empire and landmarks such as the colosseum. The impacts of the Roman inventions were felt in various areas such as agriculture where they constructed several aqueducts to help supply the cities and industrial sites with water .
Types of ancient Roman inventions and Technology
The Romans introduced the large and durable bridges that were later emulated by various cities around the world. This was after the invention of stone arch in northern Italy between the 4th and 3rd century AD. These bridges were built between the 1st – 2nd century AD. They were made of both stone and concrete and their structures were formed on the basis of the arches. The arches made by the Romans took a semicircular shape although others were segmental. There is a history of around 931 ancient Roman bridges spread are across Europe most of which were made of stone: these bridges had such sturdy construction that they are still standing to date. Most of these bridges were over five meters wide which gave the impression that they were reasonably large. Majority of these bridges especially the ones meant to carry water were sloped to allow movement of water. The Romans used alternating stonework for their bridges; for example, one layer of the bridge would be made of stones laid lengthwise and the following layer would have its stones facing outwards. Metal bars and dovetail joints were used to link these stones. Looking at this invention, Romans can be credited to have laid the foundation for the bridges built today even though these exact designs may not be applicable in larger bridges .
Another very important invention that was developed by romans is concrete and hydraulic concrete. Although many materials and ratios were tried out to make the perfect concrete for construction, the right mixture was arrived at by 200 BC. The invention of concrete opened doors for a lot of construction in the Roman Empire: some of the monuments can still be seen today meaning they have lasted about two thousand years. There were two main ingredients used to make this concrete which were lime and some special kind of volcanic sands that were mined near the Puteoli city. This resulted into effective building material, suitable for construction of structural and underwater projects. Examples of the great structures built using this concrete were the dome of the Parthenon and the harbor of Caesarea. The former was the biggest of its kind until the 19th century that time and the latter was quite a masterpiece engineers and architects. The Roman concrete also had better resistance against earthquakes. The mixture used to make the concrete was not consistent which made the density to vary. Scientist argue that this made such structures to disrupt the seismic waves, the colosseum stood many disasters but was damaged in 847 AD and later on in 1231 AD by strong earthquakes . Today, concrete is still a major material used in construction. However, some of the materials used have changed and many admixtures have been introduced. The consistence has increased and the density is rather uniform.
The Roman medical technology greatly advanced alongside other fields to an extent that a famous Roman orator named Cicero declared that there is was no other area that Men held nearly the same power as the gods than in medicine. Initially, the Romans didn’t understand diseases and their causes and so they employed various technologies to help deal with them. The Roman doctors came up with tools that even modern surgeons understand; examples include bone drills, surgical saws, scalpels and forceps from 200 BC . The doctors ensured they disinfected their instruments before performing surgery even though they did not fully understand what germs were or how one would get them from non-disinfected surgical tools. In addition, there were several herbs and chemical compounds the Roman doctors developed in order to accomplish cleaner medical procedures and make their patients as comfortable as possible. Garlic, sage and willow are some of the medicinal herbs used by the roman doctors. They also gave their patients painkillers and used vinegar to clean wounds. Some of the instruments mentioned above are still used today by doctors and surgeons even though some have been modified. It all goes back to the Romans since they came up with the original idea which has been advanced with time .
The Romans developed aqueducts to help in transportation of water to the various parts of the empire during the 1st century BC. It was possible to transport water for many miles from both the natural and artificial reservoirs right into the cities. This was possible due to the fact that the aqueducts were built to have a small downward slope. The water had many applications in the city such as in baths, public fountains and even sewers. Aqueducts played a great role in the Roman urban life and helped to support the dense populations of the Roman cities. When the Roman Empire collapsed, many of the aqueducts weren’t used or maintained and so they became damaged. However, there are some aqueducts that have been well preserved. These can be found in former Roman cities. Segovia, Caesarea and Istanbul are some of the cities in which these aqueducts are still present today and usually receive modern visitors interested in having a glimpse of what the Rome glory looked like. Today, although people may use pipes to transport water from their source in to the various cities and towns and even into their taps in houses, industries and other areas, the original idea came from the Romans.
The ancient Romans made technological inventions in various areas of life which made the empire stand and survive for the longest time in history. Although thousands of years have passed from their time, many of their technological inventions have undergone further refinement advancement to obtain the ones used today. The romans are credited to have pioneered many aspects of modern lifestyle. They arguably enjoyed standards of living closest to what is enjoyed today . Some of inventions that are associated with Romans were actually begun with Greeks’ and romans only refined them or applied them practically. Some of the ancient Roman inventions can be seen in different aspects of life such as medical, civil engineering, military engineering among others. In addition, other inventions still stand in various Roman cities and attract thousands of tourists who are fascinated by incredible technological inventions made around 2000 years ago.

Snedden, Robert. 2009. Ancient Rome. Mankato, Minn: Smart Apple Media.
Snedden, Robert. 1998. Technology in the time of ancient Rome. Austin, Tex: Raintree Steck-Vaughn.
Malacrino, Carmelo G. 2010. Constructing the Ancient world: architectural techniques of the Greeks and Romans. Los Angeles, Calif: J. Paul Getty Museum.
Cuomo, Serafina. 2007. Technology and culture in Greek and Roman antiquity. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Krebs, Robert E., and Carolyn A. Krebs. 2003. Groundbreaking scientific experiments, inventions, and discoveries of the ancient world. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
Weatherill, Sue, and Stephen Weatherill. 1997. ABCæsar: discover the power, intrigues and inventions of Ancient Rome. Kingston upon Thames: B Small Pub.

MITS5004 IT Security – 2020S1 Assignment

MITS5004 Assignment 3
Copyright © 2015-2018 VIT, All Rights Reserved. 2
MITS5004 IT Security – 2020S1
Assignment No 3 – Project Work
Critical Analysis of Security Tools
Submission Guidelines:
This assessment task is major assignment and done in groups (3-4 students) and you will be
required to work together to apply your knowledge, to analyse critically the tools used in IT
security. In this assessment you will work in groups by sharing individual tasks on a major
practical based case to analyse and devise solutions to security threats, identify security
components needed and implement a solution. This will cover all the four learning outcomes of
the unit. All submissions are to be submitted through turn-it-in. Drop-boxes linked to turn-it-in
will be set up in the Unit of Study Moodle account. Assignments not submitted through these
drop- boxes will not be considered. Submissions must be made by the due date and time. This
Assignment-3 is a group assignment and contributes 30% of your unit marks – Critical Analysis
of Security Tools (Due in Session 12)
The turn-it-in similarity score will be used in determining the level if any of plagiarism. Turn-itin will check conference web-sites, Journal articles, the Web and your own class member
submissions for plagiarism. You can see your turn-it-in similarity score when you submit your
assignment to the appropriate drop-box. If this is a concern you will have a chance to change
your assignment and re-submit. However, re-submission is only allowed prior to the submission
due date and time. After the due date and time have elapsed you cannot make re-submissions and
you will have to live with the similarity score as there will be no chance for changing. Thus, plan
early and submit early to take advantage of this feature. You can make multiple submissions, but
please remember we only see the last submission, and the date and time you submitted will be
taken from that submission.
Your document should be a single word or pdf document containing your report.
MITS5004 Assignment 3
Copyright © 2015-2018 VIT, All Rights Reserved. 3
This assessment item relates to the unit learning outcomes as in the unit descriptor. This
assessment is designed to improve the ability of students to critically analyse security tools and
present their findings. This assignment also provides an opportunity to work in a group and to
achieve a joint objective.
Each group is required to critically analyse any 2 security tools from the list and demonstrate the
functionality of the tools in a video presentation. The list of tools for the assignmentinclude:
• Hydra
• Maltego
• NMap
• Zed Attack Proxy
• SqlMap
• Metasploit Framework
• Burp Suite
• Nessus
• Nikto
• Snort
• Wireshark
• Siege
The tools need to be launched in Linux terminal (a user could be created for any member of the
Each group is required to:
1. Install and launch the 2 security tools in Linux terminal (a user could be created for any
member of the group). Screenshots need to be provided with a brief description.
2. Evaluate 4 features of each tool. Description and screenshots need to be provided for
each tool.
MITS5004 Assignment 3
Copyright © 2015-2018 VIT, All Rights Reserved. 4
3. Critically analyse each tool in terms of:
a) Ease of Use
b) Performance
c) Scalability
d) Availability
e) Reporting and analytics
4. Demonstrate the 4 features of the tool in a short video not more than 5 Minutes. Each
student is required to demonstrate 1 feature for each tool. If a student does not
demonstrate in the video, the student will not be marked for the demonstrationmarks
These instructions apply to Assignment 3 Group Assignment – Critical Analysis of Network
Security Tools. The students are required to form a group comprising of 3 to 4 students from
the same session. The group is required to notify the lecturer of the students in the group and
the network security tools that they have opted for by the end of week 6.
Each group is required to submit a single report and a video presentation on the given link on
Moodle. Each student is required to demonstrate 1 feature of each network security tool in the
video presentation.
Submit your report to the Moodle drop-box for Assignment 3. Note that this will be a turn-it-in
drop box and as such you will be provided with a similarity score. This will be taken into account
when grading the assignment. Note that incidents of plagiarism will be penalized. If your
similarity score is high you can re-submit your report, but re-submissions are only allowed up to
the due date. If you submit your assignment after the due date and time re-submissions will not
be allowed.
Please Note: All work is due by the due date and time. Late submissions will be penalized at the
rate of 10% per day including weekends.
Your report should be limited to approx. 2000 words (not including references). Use 1.5 spacing
with a 12 point Time New Roman font. Citation of sources is mandatory and must be in the IEEE
MITS5004 Assignment 3
Copyright © 2015-2018 VIT, All Rights Reserved. 5
Marking Guide: 75 Marks
Task Description Marks
Introduction Thissection should include a few sentences which provide an outline
of the assignment.
Report Layout The report style, language and structure should be appropriate. 5
Tool Launch Install and launch the 2 security tools in Linux terminal (a user could
be created for any member of the group). Screenshots need to be
provided with a brief description.
Evaluation Evaluate 4 features of each tool. Description and screenshots need
to be provided for each tool.
Analysis Critically analyse each tool in terms of:
a) Ease of Use
b) Performance
c) Scalability
d) Availability
e) Reporting and analytics
Demonstration Each group is required to submit a video demonstration of not more
than 5 minutes, each member is required to demonstrate 1 feature
of each tool.
Conclusion Summary of the report. 4
References Follow the IEEE style 4
Plagiarism and collusion
All students in the groups are warned that VIT takes a serious stand on Plagiarism and
collusion. VIT will apply heavy penalties if individuals and groups are caught in academic
misconduct. VIT uses sophisticated TURNITIN software built-in the LMS Moodle system for
detecting plagiarism and collusion.
Note: Turnitin is a text-matching software that checks a student’s written work against
electronic texts from the Internet, published works (such as journal articles and books), and
assignments/reports/articles previously submitted to Turnitin or otherwise elsewhere by other
students. So please be warned!

SIT708 – Assessment 2 Sprint 1: Project portfolio & Application Progress

SIT708 – Assessment 2
Sprint 1: Project portfolio & Application Progress
Worth: 30% of your grade (details in unit guide)
Due: Friday, Week 9, 5:00 pm Friday, Week 10, 5:00 pm (Hard Deadline)
Individual Portfolio and Project Progress
The Project Portfolio and SW application (which we refer to as the “outcome of Sprint 1”) is where you create your
notes about this entire unit, along with your mobile application, week by week. You will also demonstrate that you
have accomplished all of the required coding exercises (with screenshots as evidence). We have this Portfolio instead
of an exam, so keep in mind that you need to demonstrate your understanding equivalent to if you were sitting an
In the Portfolio, you will create a reflective summary of the class notes and answers to practical coding exercises for
every project topic from every week within our unit. You are required to present a written report on each week’s topic,
analyzing and discussing how the topic relates to developing your mobile system application. You will also include a
screenshot of the output of each week’s hands on exercise, along with the significant learning notes. Appropriate
formatting required. Note, this is due before the Project, because you must have covered all concepts to be able to
complete the Project. Thus, this earlier due date somewhat forces you to make sure you cover all theory + practical
labs before you can finish the Project.
Purpose and Tasks
The Portfolio is where you actually learn. It is the foundation of this entire unit. The science behind this is
as follows. Creating a personal summary is to request your brain’s neurons to essentially fire connectivity
and activate over new information. When listening alone, passive information comes in and will reinforce
or relate to existing information in your brain, but won’t form new memories on its own. Basically, your
brain says “oh yes, this information relates to what I already know about ABC, so XYZ is important”, and the
new information is never “saved” into your memory. Passive listening only reinforces existing knowledge.
By pressuring your mind to “create” something (e.g. written summaries), this process pressures your mind
to create and use new pathways in your brain related to the new information, thus encouraging them to be
permanent. This is the simplest way to get the information into our brains and have it stay there. So, this
exercise is for you. For many topics, you’ll find you’ll remember the topic for the entire trimester
without having to revisit your notes.
Structure of your Project portfolio
Marking Justification: A cover page detailing the grade you are aiming for, and evidence for each individual
• Week 1:
• Week 2:
• Week 3:
Project Progress
• Week 4:
Exercise Answers
Project Progress
• etc… up to week 9 only.
Submit the file to the Assessment 2 and your submission must include:
1. Project Portfolio pdf/word
2. Current stage of your Mobile application (zipped folder)
However, you must complete your work weekly (both theory summary with your lessons learned, and all
exercises completed). And each week, you’ll demonstrate and discuss the same file again with your practical
demonstrator for feedbacks (your document will grow larger each week you write in it). You are always
welcome to edit the previous weeks’ work at any stage.
Note: keep one single entire document (append each week’s new content into the existing single document
you keep for this Portfolio). Do not separate each week into its own document. Every time you update and
discuss the document, it should contain everything till date.
Criteria Pass Credit (pass criteria plus the
Distinction (Credit criteria
plus the following)
HD (Distinction criteria plus
the following)
Regular updates (Weekly) Up to date copy every week
for feedback from
demonstrator / Tutor
Completed all exercise for
the week
Presentation Consistent styling, title page,
header, footer, heading
styles, spell/grammar
Uses Styles for all main
formatting. Close to
professional documentation
Can be used as a
professional document,
when reading online or
with/without color printing.
Rich texting Mostly plain text Some bullets/lists/tables/
images to explain the idea
Mix of text (~30%), images
(~30%) and rich text (~30%).
Maximize clarity and white
space, High conciseness
Explanation Accurate spelling, grammar
and paragraphs
Easy to understand examples
and explanations: pass the
document to undergrad
student they should be able
to learn from your report
Not only easy to understand
but simultaneously cover
enough details for a team of
developers to learn from it.
At a book level: Complete
printed quick guide to mobile
systems development.
Summary Summarised all main points.
Completed every week’s
lecture notes.
At least 500 words in length,
5 code snippets, linked to
previous weeks learnings.
Reflects critical thinking!!!
Few findings and answers.
Includes images, facts and
information you searched for
to answer questions or seek
more understanding that
wasn’t included in the unit
contents. Some curiosity
questions and research to
answer those problems.
Lecture notes summary
reads like a professional mini
book. Your document is
instructional, informative
and standalone.
Exercises Decent attempt of three
Complete answers for three
different exercises
Usefulness and learnings
from the exercises
Three complete exercises.
Usefulness and short
description lines in the code.
Project Progress List of tasks that you have
accomplished this week
(>100 words)
List of tasks that you have
accomplished this week
(>100 words). List of your
plan for the following week
(>60 words). Project
progress folder.

Management Communication

Management Communication
Section A. Introduction
I selected the scenario on the pharmaceutical distribution company getting an exclusive contract for the distribution of a new drug for treating cancer. The manufacturer of the new drug was Arab and did not have the capacity to distribute the drugs to its target markets. I think the case fits my interest on understanding how cancer drugs could reach patients from the different locations. Having a proper understanding of how the company communicates with its stakeholders would give me an insight on the communication process engaged by the pharmaceutical distribution companies globally. Therefore, the scenario fits well into my interests and future desires to learn the distribution of pharmaceutical drugs to the different domestic and international locations.
Section B: Internal Email
To: All Staff
Subject Line: Big Win on Araba Contract
I am glad to announce that we have been awarded with an exclusive contract to distribute a new breast cancer drug known as Complexia. I am very proud to all the efforts you put in the drafting of the proposal to win the contract. On working on this contract, I believe that everyone is going to work hard to grow the market share of the new drug.
To employees who were not involved in the drafting of the proposal, Complexia is a new drug for treating breast cancer that has been approved. Complexia compete an existing drug, Tamoxifen that is used in the treatment of breast cancer. Complexia will be used in the prevention of recurrence of the condition after and during the treatment period.
Complexia has two potential advantages that will make it possible to make revenues including that it offers a higher potential efficiency of treating breast cancer. The research studies have indicated that the new drug could be able to treat the patients suffering from breast cancer efficiently. Another advantage of the new drug is giving breast cancer patients hope to fight the disease. The new drug would help in lowering recurrence rates among the breast cancer patients. For years, the lack of breast cancer drugs has made many patients to lose hope and often die because of stress and lack of the willingness to fight against the condition. The new drug will give them hope and ability to overcome from this worse medical condition.
However, the new drugs has two potential disadvantages including that clinical trials have determined the efficacy of the drugs is achieved among a small group of patients over a short period. Also, the long-term product efficiency rates have not been recorded. The lack of research information on the long-term efficiency rates of the new drug could lead to undesirable outcomes that would hurt the company’s reputation. To mitigate on the disadvantages, the company will work with the treating physicians rather than with the patients directly. All staffs should be able to understand the merits and demerits of the new drugs and how will handle any undesired outcomes from the new drugs.
I know one way or the other we have been affected by cancer and we have an exciting opportunity to share this new drug with the world. Please take you take to go through the information on Complexia posted on the Human Resources homepage in the company website. Going forward, we will become partners of good health with patients fighting to become cancer free.
Thank you,
Section C: External Email
To: Shareholder Group
Subject Line: Araba Contract for Distribution of Complexia
To our valued partners,
I am excited to inform you on our recent contractual award of an exclusive distribution of Complexia, a new breast cancer treatment cancer by Araba. The contractual award is a big opportunity for Munnski Distribution Inc. in the long-term. The contract will help us in expanding the overall distribution operations to achieve our short-term growth goals.
Complexia is a drug that treats cancer through reducing the recurrence rates of breast cancer.
Even the company competes directly with Tamoxifen; it is different, which will help us to market it widely. Tamoxifen usually treats cancer through a hormone-driven approach. In contrast, Complexia helps in reducing the recurrence rates of breast cancer during and after the treatment process. Complexia will have competitive advantage over Tamoxifen because it helps to prevent the growth of new and existing tumor. The drug is not a form of chemotherapy.
Complexia will perform well above Tamoxifen as the preferred method of treatment as it does not feed existing or potential new tumor growth. Be sure to understand this is not Chemotherapy and does not directly attack the cancer. Munnski Distribution Inc. is keen on using our existing oncology relationships to improve the positive reception in the market. There is huge market anticipation for the new drug and we seek to capitalize the anticipation to enhance success. Complexia requires refrigerated casing during its transportation and any failure to meet the require poses huge risks on the safety of the drug. However, I have met with Lee Harold at Shipping Inc. who has affirmed their commitment to provide refrigerated containers for the shopping of the drug. Shipping Inc. has also committed to the shorter lead times to promote the delivery of the product to the target markets. Moreover, I am looking to a second shipping company in case Shipping Inc. is unable to meet our expectations.
I want to assure you that the Araba contract is a major growth opportunity for Munnski Distribution Inc. The contract is effective beginning July 1, 2018 and each of you can expect to see very short term control measurements being provided to you within the first quarter. Complexia is the newest addition to our product delivery line and I ask that each of you learn more about this amazing drug by visiting the corporate office on June 15th at 11:00 for a 1 hour lunch and learn with the representatives of Araba and the product developers.
Rory Munns
Munnski Distribution Inc.
Section D: Company Blog
Complexia is a new drug for treating breast cancer that has been approved by the FDA. The approval of Complexia brings hope on the treatment of breast cancer. The new drug will compete with an existing cancer drug, Tamoxifen that is usually effective in breast cancer cases, which are hormone-driven. Complexia is not a type of chemotherapy. Complexia is a medical drug that will be used in preventing the recurrence of breast cancer after and during the treatment of the condition.
One of the key features of Complexia is that it has the ability to reduce the recurrence of breast cancer making it efficient in the treatment of the condition. Research studies have indicated the new drug has a potential efficacy in treating breast cancer due to the high level of breast cancer recurrence in the society today. Also, the new drug is different from Tamoxifen, which also treats breast cancer. The product differentiation is good for the marketing for the drug. However, there are concerns on the efficacy of the new drug to a large group of patients in the long-term period. Most importantly, Araba continues to test and study Complexia to improve the long term efficacy rate.
Based on the initial research findings, there is no doubt that Complexia is going to save lives and reduce the patients that suffer from reoccurrence of cancer. With such great success within the trials and studies, I advise all employees to prepare for a significant growth opportunities within Munnski Distribution Inc.
Section E: Persuasive Letter
Dear Lee,
I am glad you have communicated with us on your concerns with meeting our lead time requirements as stated in our new contract. I wish to convey the importance of having a shorter lead time for this contract and we have ready to improve our contractual consideration for our mutual benefit.
The past contracts were agreed on products that do not require specialized and shorter lead time. We appreciate your efforts in meeting the set forth lead time requirements. However, for this new contract, I think a modification of the existing contract will help in expanding the level of orders and distribution that is profitable to both companies. Araba has awarded us with an exclusively distribution contract for Complexia. Complexia is new breast cancer treatment drug that has been recorded to have positive outcomes on efficient treatment of the condition.
In addition, the demand for the drug has been increasing on a daily basis from the different locations. Based on the increased demand for the drug, we project an increase in the orders by 8% per month, which would be beneficial to you. Meeting the order delivery requirement would also attract a 2% increase in the price of the drugs, which would grow your earrings. According to Araba team, the health standards also require the drug should be delivered within a shorter period to avoid any contamination and expiry. The new drug will only shipped overnight only in a temperature-controlled unit. I believe that you have the resources and capacity to the deliver the cancer drugs to the patients both domestically and internationally.
Finally, I want to remind you of the very meaningful work and commitment to the success Munnski for the past years. You are a valued partner with whom we trust and look directly to for your leadership on order executions. The new contract is effective July 1, 2018 so I am requesting from you a response with actions NLT May 15th, 2018. Thank you so much for your continued support and valued partnership and feel free to clarify any complications.
Section F: Customer Response
Mr. Unhappy,
Thank you sir for taking your time to inform us about you’re the issue your wife is experiencing after taking Complexia. I want to inform you on our commitment and dedication to get the issue resolved. I have started an inquiry with the Product Safety department and the Araba team. They will get in touch with you soon to notify on the corrective solution to be taken. We work with our partner, Araba to get solution on the issue.
In the meantime, you give can us the contact information of your physician and the medical history of your wife as the physician and medical history information will be helpful in understanding situation better. After getting your physician’s information, we will be able to communicate on the better actions to be taken. We value your trust and belief in us. Thank you again for urgently notifying us about your wife’s problem and we commit to put all efforts in resolving the matter. If you have any further questions or information, feel free to communicate with us.
M Rory Munns
CEO Munnski Distribution Inc.
Section G: Communication Strategies
Largely, the company uses positive communication strategies to engage both its internal and external stakeholders. The various examples will show how the company has benefited from the use of positive communication strategies. Negative communication strategy usually involves ignoring the feelings of the stakeholders, feelings, and having a disrespectful attitude towards the stakeholders. The company did not adopt the negative communication strategy in engaging the stakeholders (Zoogah, Noe, & Shenkar, 2015). The positive communication strategies used helps to create positive message and image on the operations of the company. The company maintained a positive engagement with the staffs and its business partner that was useful in creating a sense of focus for business success. Internal staffs including the sales people where motivated and informed on the content of the new drug and how they could market to the clients.
Through engaging the business partner, Shipping Inc. positively, the company was able to create a sense of belonging for the transport of the drugs by the shipping company. For example, the company had a close contact with Lee Harold who worked at Shipping Inc. The company communicated the importance of services of Shipping Inc. on the success of the company. Communicating their important role would make the shipping company feel part of the distribution process and own the entire business operation. Negative communication strategy would have discouraged them engaging actively in the distribution process (Luxton, Reid, & Mavondo, 2015). Based on the positive communication model, the management of Shipping Inc. would feel obligated to install refrigerated casing that would improve the safety of the Complexia. Based on the scenario, the positive communication strategies adopted through the different communication channels helps to create good relations with both the internal and external stakeholders and thus, increasing the possibility of successful distribution operations.
Section H: Communication Modalities
The pharmaceutical distributor company has benefited from the use of the various communication modalities including emails, blogs, social media, and formal letters in communicating with both internal and external stakeholders. For example, the company uses social media to respond to the complaints rom customers. The use of the diverse communication channels has made it possible for the company to have in place a holistic communication strategy for communicating to its key stakeholders (Zoogah, et al., 2015). The varied communication modalities have been effective in helping the company to relay information and respond to the concerns of the stakeholders such as the customers.
Based on the scenario above, the company mainly relies on email for communication with its stakeholders. The effectiveness of the email communication approach is based on the ability to communicate relevant information and understanding how to create strong customer relationships. Email communication makes it possible for the distributor to form strong connections with bond its staffs and external stakeholders such as business partner and the customers (Luxton, et al., 2015). Sending of official emails to Shipping Inc. helped to create a successful network for improved service delivery. In terms of social media, the communication method has been effective in understanding the concerns of the customers including their questions on the safety of the products being distributed by the company. For example, the company had received a social media inquiry on the ability of the new drug, Complexia to treat who had been severely sick after taking the drug. The social media site gives the company an opportunity to provide direct feedback and information on whether the drug would treat the patient (Batra, & Keller, 2016). In addition, the company has blog that is effective in informing the stakeholders on the effectiveness of the new drugs and how the distribution is done to enhance its safety. Therefore, the different communication method used by the company is effective in communication efficiently to the diverse stakeholders including customers, business partners and internal staffs.

Batra, R., & Keller, K. L. (2016). Integrating marketing communications: New findings, new lessons, and new ideas. Journal of Marketing, 80(6), 122-145.
Luxton, S., Reid, M., & Mavondo, F. (2015). Integrated marketing communication capability and brand performance. Journal of Advertising, 44(1), 37-46.
Zoogah, D. B., Noe, R. A., & Shenkar, O. (2015). Shared mental model, team communication and collective self-efficacy: an investigation of strategic alliance team effectiveness. International Journal of Strategic Business Alliances, 4(4), 244-270.

PICOT Statement and Literature Search

The first step of the EBP process is to develop a question from the nursing practice problem of interest.

Select a practice problem of interest to use as the focus of your research.

Start with the patient and identify the clinical problems or issues that arise from clinical care.

Following the PICOT format, write a PICOT statement in your selected practice problem area of interest, which is applicable to your proposed capstone project.

The PICOT statement will provide a framework for your capstone project (the project students must complete during their final course in the RN-BSN program of study).

Conduct a literature search to locate research articles focused on your selected practice problem of interest. This literature search should include both quantitative and qualitative peer-reviewed research articles to support your practice problem.

Select six peer-reviewed research articles which will be utilized through the next 5 weeks as reference sources. Be sure that some of the articles use qualitative research and that some use quantitative research. Create a reference list in which the six articles are listed. Beneath each reference include the article’s abstract. The completed assignment should have a title page and a reference list with abstracts.

PICOT Statement and Literature Search
The key research question is to determine whether tooth-brushing compared to doing nothing reduces bad breaths among adult male population. Bad breath is a huge oral hygiene concern and usually occurs among the adult male population in the society.
PICOT Statement
P: Population. Bad breath among the male adults.
I: Intervention. Tooth-brushing
C: Control/Comparison. Doing nothing.
O: Outcome. The reduction of bad breath,
T: Time. Within 3 weeks.
Literature Search
Aung, E. E., Ueno, M., Zaitsu, T., Furukawa, S., & Kawaguchi, Y. (2015). Effectiveness of three oral hygiene regimens on oral malodor reduction: a randomized clinical trial. Trials, 16(1), 31.
Bad breath is a nuisance problem that faces many people in the society. It usually affects the social interactions of people through causing significant emotional stress and discomfort. The article recommends the use of chemical and mechanical approaches for controlling oral breath are critical. It highlights on few studies have been documented comparing the chemical and mechanical measures of bad breath. The research study sought to evaluate the impacts of the different oral hygiene programs on the reduction of bad breath.
Godha, S., Dasar, P. L., Sandesh, N., Mishra, P., Kumar, S., Balsaraf, S., … & Vyas, S. (2016). Impact of different oral hygiene aids for the reduction of morning bad breath among dental students: a crossover clinical trial. Clujul Medical, 89(4), 525.
The research article by Godha et al. (2016) evaluates the effects of the diverse oral hygiene measures in the reduction of the bad breath in healthy persons. The researchers relied on cross-over trials and recorded results that would help in determining the best actions to overcome bad breath. The research outcomes determined that mechanical aids used together with chemical substances are effective in reducing bad breaths amongst healthy persons. The measures should be part of the daily oral hygiene activities.
Patil, P. S., Pujar, P., & Subbareddy, V. V. (2015). Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years. Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 33(3), 218.
The research reviews the various options of improving oral care and reducing bad breath among persons. The research study used 120 children who had been determined to have oral malodor to determine the best way of handling the oral problem. The oral hygiene interventions considered in the research includes tooth brushing, cleaning of the tongue, and rinsing of the mouth. The results were analyzed qualitatively to determine their ability to improve oral hygiene. The findings determined that oral malodor was reduced effectively through the combination of the oral hygiene interventions.
Prendergast, V., & Kleiman, C. (2015). Interprofessional practice: translating evidence-based oral care to hospital care. American Dental Hygienists Association, 89(suppl 1), 33-35.
The research article evaluates the integration of the evidence-based approaches of oral care into the hospital care programs to improve oral hygiene. It involves the diagnosis of the oral care actions and how they could help patients. The recognition of the research on oral hygiene is relevant to enhance the oral care actions and interventions. Understanding the research findings will help in improving the overall oral care effectively.
Setia, S., Pannu, P., Gambhir, R. S., Galhotra, V., Ahluwalia, P., & Sofat, A. (2014). Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students. Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine, 5(1), 67.
The research study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of oral hygiene intervention and smoking habits and the correlating the oral hygiene interactions to the prevalence of the perceived oral bad breath. The research findings determined that there is a positive correlation between the oral health conditions and the oral hygiene measures.
Woelber, J. P., Bienas, H., Fabry, G., Silbernagel, W., Giesler, M., Tennert, C., … & Hellwig, E. (2015). Oral hygiene‐related self‐efficacy as a predictor of oral hygiene behaviour: a prospective cohort study. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 42(2), 142-149.
The purpose of the research study was to evaluate whether the oral hygiene-associated self-efficacy is highly associated with oral hygiene and could impact the outcomes of oral hygiene instructions. The results determined that women had better hygiene efficiency than men. The results confirm the research problem concerns of the high level of oral bad breath among adult men. The research findings determined that oral hygiene measures are a significant factor in determining the oral hygiene behavior and ability to forecast the oral hygiene findings.

Aung, E. E., Ueno, M., Zaitsu, T., Furukawa, S., & Kawaguchi, Y. (2015). Effectiveness of three oral hygiene regimens on oral malodor reduction: a randomized clinical trial. Trials, 16(1), 31.
Godha, S., Dasar, P. L., Sandesh, N., Mishra, P., Kumar, S., Balsaraf, S., … & Vyas, S. (2016). Impact of different oral hygiene aids for the reduction of morning bad breath among dental students: a crossover clinical trial. Clujul Medical, 89(4), 525.
Patil, P. S., Pujar, P., & Subbareddy, V. V. (2015). Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years. Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 33(3), 218.
Prendergast, V., & Kleiman, C. (2015). Interprofessional practice: translating evidence-based oral care to hospital care. American Dental Hygienists Association, 89(suppl 1), 33-35.
Setia, S., Pannu, P., Gambhir, R. S., Galhotra, V., Ahluwalia, P., & Sofat, A. (2014). Correlation of oral hygiene practices, smoking and oral health conditions with self perceived halitosis amongst undergraduate dental students. Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine, 5(1), 67.
Woelber, J. P., Bienas, H., Fabry, G., Silbernagel, W., Giesler, M., Tennert, C., … & Hellwig, E. (2015). Oral hygiene‐related self‐efficacy as a predictor of oral hygiene behaviour: a prospective cohort study. Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 42(2), 142-149.

Research Paper Writing

Research Paper Writing

The process of conducting research can be quite overwhelming especially to novice researchers. This is because research paper writing involves systematically investigating on a given problem. The problem could be a knowledge gap or a real world problem. In order to identify a knowledge gap, you need to exhaustively read a certain body of literature with the aim of understanding the areas that have not been exhaustively covered. On the other hand, observing, talking to people and even reading around different issues can help you identify a real life problem that can be solved by the use of research skills. It is important to note that your research problem must be approved first before you can proceed to collecting relevant data. Our research paper writers are willing to guide you in looking for a suitable issue or phenomenon that you can investigate on.

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Help in psychology paper Writing

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Winners and Losers Winners: INEOS

Winners and Losers
Winners: INEOS

INEOS has established the most successful modern marketing strategies ever in human history. From the primary people to sophisticated persons, the term INEOS has become familiar worldwide. By scheduling a marathon to race against time is not only genius but impeccable. Eliud Kipchoge being the man of the hour, was able to break the two-hour barrier in a forty-two-kilometer marathon. Being able to run a marathon in less than two hours in a marathon has never been witnessed before and caught the attention of the most prolific people ever, such as the former president of America, Barak Obama. As fans across the world continue hailing the success of Eliud Kipchoge, much of the credit goes to the company for organizing and being part of making history. As a result, the company becomes famous worldwide in less thsn two hours, meaning more success in advertising campaigns.
Losers: American Airlines

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